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Cell Organelles
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Cell Organelles

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  1. Cell Organelles FUNCTIONS

  2. What do Cells Contain? • Organelles • Ions – Na+, H+, Ca+, K+, • Enzymes (cellulase) • Lipids • Nucleic Acids • Carbohydrates • Carbon compounds (C6H12O6) • Coenzymes • Proteins

  3. CELL MEMBRANE • SUPPORT AND PROTECT CELLS • SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE – ALLOWS SOME SUBSTANCES TO ENTER AND KEEPS OTHER SUBSTANCES OUT • THIN, FLEXIBLE BILAYER • ALL CELLS HAVE A CELL MEMBRANE

  4. CELL WALL • SUPPORT AND PROTECT CELLS • LOCATED OUTSIDE OF THE CELL MEMBRANE • PLANT, FUNGI, PROTIST AND BACTERIA HAVE CELL WALLS • ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT HAVE CELL WALLS

  5. NUCLEUS • THE CONTROL CENTER OF THE CELL • CONTAINS THE CHROMOSOMES – STRUCTURES THAT CONTAIN DNA(THE GENETIC INFORMATION) • CHROMOSOMES (RODLIKE) WHEN CELL IS DIVIDING; • CHROMATIN (THREAD LIKE)WHEN CELL IS NOT DIVIDING; • SYNTHESIZES RNA AND RIBOSOMES

  6. CYTOPLASM (CYTOSOL) • HOLDS THE OTHER CELL ORGANELLES • GEL LIKE SUBSTANCE • LOCATED WITHIN THE CELL MEMBRANE

  7. NUCLEOLUS • MAKES AND PARTIALLY ASSEMBLES THE RIBOSOMES • INSIDE OF THE NUCLEUS

  8. NUCLEAR ENVELOPE • ALLOW MATERIALS TO MOVE INTO AND OUT OF THE NUCLEUS • DOUBLE MEMBRANE • SURROUNDS THE NUCLEUS • ALSO CALLED THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE

  9. CYTOSKELETON • HELPS THE CELL MAINTAIN ITS SHAPE • THE TWO PARTS OF THE CYTOSKELETON ARE: • MICROTUBULES – MAINTAIN CELL SHAPE & SERVE AS TRACKS ALONG WHICH ORGANELLES MOVE (TUBE SHAPE) • MICROFILAMENTS – MOVEMENT AND SUPPORT OF THE CELL (THIN FILAMENTS)

  10. RIBOSOMES • SITE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS • FREE FLOATING IN CYTOPLASM OR • ATTACHED TO ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ROUGH)

  11. ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • INVOLVED IN THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS • CHEMICALLY MODIFIES PROTEINS • PREPARES PROTEINS FOR EXPORT • COVERED WITH RIBOSOMES

  12. SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • Synthesis of lipids; • Synthesis of membranes in the cell;

  13. GOLGI APPARATUS • PROCESSESs, PACKAGES AND DELIVERS SUBSTANCES PRODUCED BY THE CELL • (THE “UPS/FEDEX/USPS” OF THE CELL)

  14. LYSOSOMES (lyse – break down) • CONTAIN ENZYMES • BREAK DOWN LIPIDS, CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEIN FROM FOOD • BREAK DOWN OLD WORN-OUT ORGANELLES • REMOVE “GARBAGE” FROM THE CELL • MANY IN ANIMAL CELLS • FEW IN PLANT CELLS

  15. VACUOLES • STORE ENZYMES, WATER AND WASTE PRODUCTS, • IN PLANTS, ONE LARGE FLUID-FILLED VACUOLE • ANIMAL CELLS HAVE MANY SMALL VACUOLES

  16. MITOCHONDRIA • THE POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL; • TRANSFERS ENERGY FROM ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (GLUCOSE) TO ATP; • ATP IS THE CHEMICAL COMPOUND THAT THE CELL BREAKS DOWN TO GET ENERGY; • THE SITE OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION;

  17. CHLOROPLASTS • CONVERTS THE ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (GLUCOSE) • THE SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  18. `DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS • ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CENTRIOLES – SERVE AS AN ANCHOR FOR THE SPINDLE FIBERS IN CELL DIVISION; • PLANT CELLS HAVE: • A LARGE, FLUID-FILLED VACUOLE • CHLOROPLASTS • CELL WALL

  19. ORGANELLES UNIQUE TO PLANTS • PLASTIDS – • CHLOROPLAST – SITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS; CONTAINS CHLOROPHYLL; • CHROMOPLAST – STORES COLOR PIGMENTS – XANTHROPHYLLS (YELLOWS) AND CAROTENOIDS (REDS AND ORANGES) • LEUCOPLAST – STORES STARCH

  20. CILIA AND FLAGELLA • CILIA – • MOVEMENT AND FOOD-GETTING • TINY, HAIRLIKE PROJECTIONS PRESENT IN HUGE NUMBERS • FLAGELLA • MOVEMENT AND FOOD-GETTING • LONG, WHIPLIKE STRUCTURES, USUALLY ONLY A FEW PRESENT

  21. CILIA & FLAGELLA

  22. CELL PROJECT • CELL DIORAMA • BRING IN MATERIALS SUCH AS: • PASTA - UNCOOKED(MACARONI, RIGATONNI, LASAGNA) • DRIED BEANS - UNCOOKED • STRAWS • MATERIAL SCRAPS • COTTON BALLS • YARN • PIPE CLEANERS • BUTTONS • BOLTS, NUTS, SCREWS, ETC. • NO CANDY!!!!!