tomislav skra i ma undergraduate english course for mari ne engineers 2nd semester n.
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Tomislav Skračić, MA Undergraduate English Course for MARI NE ENGINEERS 2nd Semester
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  1. Essential reading: SPINČIĆ, A., An English Textbook For Marine Engineers I., Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2008. LUZER, J., SPINČIĆ, A., Gramatička vježbenica engleskog jezika za pomorce, Pomorski fakultet, Rijeka 2003. Tomislav Skračić, MAUndergraduate English Course forMARINE ENGINEERS2nd Semester

  2. REMEMBER: the Selandia, the Titanic, the Petar Hektorović KEY WORDS merchant liner - trgovački linijaš pronouncement (n.) - izjava unreliable - nepouzdan wear out (v.) - istrošiti se cease (v.) - prekinuti fleet (n.) - flota manifold (adj.) - mnogostruk prime mover - primarni pogonski stroj standpoint (n.) - stajalište overall - sveukupan SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Diesel propulsion

  3. KEY WORDS added deadweight - povećana korisna nosivost (=tereta) cubic capacity - kubična zapremina performance - radna performansa reverse (v.) - prekrenuti (stroj) astern operation - rad krmom facilitate (v.) - olakšati conversely - suprotno tome improvement (n.) - poboljšanje gain impetus - dobiti na zamahu substantially - značajno purifying system - sustav za pročišćavanje due to - zbog nevertheless - pa ipak SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Diesel propulsion

  4. The diesel is the most efficient prime mover from the standpoint of overall thermal efficiency. Fuel consumption is lower than with steamship and consequently less bunker space is required, giving added deadweight and cubic capacity for cargo. Diesel engines have good performance at efficient speeds and can be readily reversed for astern operation. Additionally, compared with the steam reciprocating engine, the diesel offers a reduction in size/weight ratio which facilitates the diesel machinery to be placed aft. SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Diesel propulsion

  5. If compared with steam turbines, diesels have certain shortcomings. Here are the principal shortcomings: A diesel is more expensive to build and maintain. It requires more auxiliary equipment (pumps, purifiers, heaters...). It requires more space. It requires a skilled and experienced personnel for operation and servicing. It creates more vibration and noise. It tends to have a shorter life compared with steam engine. SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Diesel propulsion

  6. Improvements in marine engineering and in efficiency of fuel are constantly reducing costs. Engine builders have designed diesel engines capable of using cheaper, heavier fuel oils, instead of the more costly diesel oil. This practice gained impetus in 1973 when fuel cost escalated substantially. Of course, the use of heavy oil for diesels increases the complexity of the plant, due to its action on pistons and cylinder liners. Nevertheless, the tendency to produce larger, more powerful diesels continues with the purpose of enabling propulsion of ships of larger tonnage. SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Diesel propulsion

  7. What advantages do diesel engines offer if compared to steam reciprocating engines? What are the disadvantages of diesel engines when compared to steam turbines? Steamships of the past never had their machinery aft; what enables the aft location of engines on today’s vessels? What event, in 1973, deeply influenced marine diesel technology? What are the direct consequences of the use of heavier oils? A) on diesel engines, B) on the environment SHIP PROPULSION – Part 3Answer the following questions:

  8. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: EXAMPLE: I have inspected all ship’s documents and certificates. >>> All ship’s documents and certificates have been inspected. • The Master reads out the articles to the seamen. • The seamen are about to sign the articles. • The seamen are now signing the articles. • They are reminded that the articles are of two years’ duration.

  9. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: KEY: • The articles are read out to the seamen by the Master. • The articles are about to be signed by the seamen. • The articles are now being signed by the seamen. • The Master reminds them that the articles are of two years’ duration.

  10. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: EXAMPLE: I have inspected all ship’s documents and certificates. >>> All ship’s documents and certificates have been inspected. • They will be bound by this agreement to serve aboard her for a time not exceeding two years. • Superiors must give lawful orders to the crew. • Have you understood all the Master said?

  11. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: KEY: • This agreement will bind them to serve aboard her for a time not exceeding two years. • Lawful orders must be given to the crew by superiors. • Has all the Master said been understood?

  12. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: EXAMPLE: I have inspected all ship’s documents and certificates. >>> All ship’s documents and certificates have been inspected. • All seamen have to sign a contract on leaving their country. • A medical examination is required by law. • The discharge book was retained by the Master. • The explosion destroyed the boiler room.

  13. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: KEY: • A contract has to be signed by all seamen on leaving their country. • Law requires a medical examination. • The Master retained the discharge book. • The boiler room was destroyed by the explosion.

  14. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: EXAMPLE: I have inspected all ship’s documents and certificates. >>> All ship’s documents and certificates have been inspected. • Navigo plc employs 600 engineers. • A statement has been written by the pilot. • Are value-added vessels made at Uljanik? • Someone stole my wallet at the club last night. • He is wanted dead or alive.

  15. EXERCISE 1– Turn the following sentences into the passive form if they are active. If passive, turn them into the active form: KEY: • 600 engineers are employed by Navigo plc. • The pilot has written a statement. • Does Uljanik make value-added vessels? • My wallet was stolen at the club last night. • The sheriff / police wants him dead or alive.

  16. SHIP PROPULSION – New developments CODAG – Combined diesel and gas propulsion Combined diesel and gas(CODAG) is a type of propulsion system for ships which need a maximum speed that is considerably faster than their cruise speed, particularly warships like modern frigates or corvettes. It consists of diesel engines for cruising and gas turbines that can be switched on for high-speed transits. In most cases the difference of power output from diesel engines alone to diesel and turbine power combined is too large for controllable pitch propellers to limit the rotations so that the diesels can continue to operate without changing the gear ratios of their transmissions. Because of that, special multi-speed gearboxes are needed. This contrasts to CODOG systems, which couple thediesels with a simple, fixed ratio gearbox to the shaft, but disengage the diesels when the turbine is switched on.

  17. CODAG propulsion system with two speed diesel gearboxes

  18. SHIP PROPULSION – New developments FUEL CELLS and ELECTRICAL DRIVE Germanischer Lloyd (GL) subsidiary FutureShip has developed a zero-emission propulsion system concept for shipping firm Scandlines, which the company said could be deployed on ferries in the Baltic region within the next five years. The zero-emission propulsion system will use excess electricity from wind turbines in northern Germany and Denmark to produce hydrogen for use in onboard fuel cells to power the electrical pod drives. Excess electricity is stored in batteries for peak demand, while total energy needs are reduced by the optimised hull lines, propeller shapes and procedures in port.

  19. SHIP PROPULSION – New developments FutureShip – zero emission propulsion system concept

  20. SHIP PROPULSION – New developments FUEL CELLS and ELECTRICAL DRIVE Each double-ended ferry will be capable of accommodating 1,500 passengers, 2,200 lane metres for vehicles and 140m³ hydrogen tanks sufficient for a journey of 48 hours. The ferries, equipped with 8,300 kW fuel cells as well as storage batteries with 2,400 kWh capacity, will travel at 17 knots, which can be increased up to 18 knots by drawing additional power from the batteries. Diesel-powered ferries burn about a tonne of fuel per crossing and emit about three tonnes of CO2, as well as sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In September 2012, GL announced that it had designed a concept for a liquid hydrogen-powered commercial ship that would be completely free of emissions.