UHL 2332Academic Report Writing Oral Presentation
Contents of a Presentation • Introduction • Body • Conclusion
Why Speech Organization is Important • It allows you and the listeners to see what ideas you have and to put mental “hands” on the most important ones. • Listeners who hear a well-organized speech believe a speaker to be much more competent and trustworthy. • Listeners demand coherence. A speaker must make sure listeners can follow the progression of ideas in a speech from beginning to end. • Using a clear and specific method of speech organization can boost your confidence as a speaker and improve your ability to deliver a message fluently.
3 Elements in the Body of the Presentation • Main points • Supporting points • Connectives
Main Points and Organizational Patterns • Select them carefully • Phrase them precisely • Organize them strategically, in any of the following patterns : • Chronological order • Spatial order • Causal order • Topical order • Problem solving order
Supporting Points • Supporting materials are backup ideas for the main points. • Directly support and are relevant to the main points.
Connectives • Transitions Eg: We have spent a lot of time talking the problem. It’s time now to discuss the solution. • Internal previews Eg: (Transition) Now that we have seen serious the problem of missing children is, let’s take a look at some solutions. (Internal preview) I willfocus on three in particular – stronger legal custody laws to …and…Let’s consider them in turn. • Internal summaries Eg: In going back over the effects of … • Signposts Eg: The first cause… the final contributing cause is…
The Introduction of Your Speech • Get the attention and interest of your audience – “attention-grabber” • Reveal the topic of your speech • Establish your credibility • Preview the body of the speech
How to Get the Attention of Your Audience • Relate the topic to your audience. • State the importance of your topic. • Startle the audience with an arresting or intriguing statement. • Arouse the curiosity of the audience. • Question the audience. • Begin with a quotation. • Tell a story.
The Conclusion of Your Speech • Signal the end of the speech by using cues like: • Ending words • Voice characteristics – tone, pace, rhythm • Reinforce the central idea by: • Restating the main points. • Emphasize what you want your audience to do or think. • Use a quotation or dramatic statement, if appropriate. • Refer to the introduction.
Language Issues • Sentence structure – spoken vs written • Appropriate vocabulary • Clear pronunciation
Delivery Style ~Extemporaneous~ • The extemporaneous method requires that the presentation be carefully researched and planned. • Delivery is aided by a presentation outline, rather than a complete script • The main advantage of this method is a presenter could sound spontaneous and conversational, yet organized and coherent
Tips on Delivery • Maintain eye contact – gently (caution : do not stare!) • Use voice control – pause; vary the volume, pitch and rate of voice to sustain interest • Use body language – carefully (gestures, posture and facial expressions should consistently support the verbal message) • Establish a confident posture and stance • Avoid distracting mannerisms
Appearance ~ What you are speaks louder than what you say ~ • Match appearance to audience expectations • Keep the pattern and style of attire simple – DO NOT hang ornaments or badges on the attire, or over-accesorise • Ensure attire is comfortable, i.e. in the appropriate size, made of suitable materials • Wear suitable and comfortable shoes
Anxietya major challenge to effective presentation • Fear or anxiety over the prospect of giving a presentation in front of an audience is normal • Causes have been attributed to perceived lack of skills, emotional predispositions towards speaking, and characteristics of the speaking situation • The best strategy to overcome speech anxiety : PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE (based on the principle that the better one knows how to do something, the less anxious one will feel about doing it)
All the best, and enjoy the experience!