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RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA

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  1. RESURGENCE OF EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA CHINA UNDER THE SUI, TANG, AND SONG

  2. ANARCHY IN CHINA • Three Kingdoms 220-280 • Shu Han 221 – 263 • Wei 220 - 265 • Most powerful, eventually conquered Shu • Built an army of Chinese infantry and nomadic cavalry as mounted bowmen • These assimilated nomads later overthrew Wei and founded own dynasties • Wu 222 – 280 • Jin Dynasty 265-420 • Western Jin 265 – 316 and Eastern Jin 317 – 420 • Only time during interregnum when China was united • Intermixture of nomads and Chinese accelerated • Sixteen Kingdoms 304 – 420 • Southern and Northern Dynasties 420-589 • Southern Dynasties • Liu Song 420 – 479 • Southern Qi 479 – 502 • Liang 502 - 557 • Chen 557 ~589 • Northern Dynasties • Later [Northern] Wei 386 – 534 • Eastern Wei 534 -550 • Western Wei 535 – 556 • Northern Qi 550 – 577 • Northern Zhou 557 ~581 • Period Resembled Western European history after the collapse of the Romans • Disunity and civil war between nomads and Chinese warlords • Rival states, dynasties, each controlling a part of the old Han state • Aristocrats, provincial nobles held land and real influence • Many of the northern dynasties were nomadic, both Turkish and Mongol • Confucianism in decline, Buddhism in ascendancy due to its relationship with the nomads • Confucian trained bureaucrats still held much influence • Common Chinese subject to taxes, warfare, drafting into army, frequent invasions, bandits

  3. BUDDHISM ARRIVES IN CHINA • Foreign religions in China: Nestorian, Muslim, Buddhist merchant communities • Oases on the Silk Road were very mixed • Became location for foreign settlements, transmission of foreign faiths to China • Buddhism in China • Attraction: moral standards, intellectual sophistication, salvation, appeal to women, poor • Monasteries became large landowners, helped the poor and needy • Posed a challenge to Chinese cultural traditions • Buddhism and Daoism • Chinese monks explained Buddhist concepts in Daoist vocabulary • Dharma as dao, and nirvana as wuwei • Teaching: one son in monastery would benefit whole family for 10 generations • Mahayana Buddhism • Buddhism blended with Chinese characteristics • Buddha as a man became Buddha as a god, saint • Stupa became a pagoda; Buddha became fat or feminine • Chan Buddhism • A further evolution of Buddhism • Chan (or Zen in Japanese) was a popular Buddhist sect • Emphasized intuition and sudden flashes of insight • Mediation techniques resembled Daoist practice • Monasteries appeared in all major cities • Hostility to Buddhism • Resistance from Daoists and Confucians • Popular criticism focused on celibacy, alien origin, • Governmental criticism: unproductive land, could not tax • Persecution • Critics of Buddhism found allies in the imperial court • Tang emperor ordered closure of monasteries in 840s • Buddhism survived because of popular support

  4. SUI DYNASTY • After fall of the Han, turmoil lasted for more than 350 years • Three major states contended for rule; further fragmentation • Nomads constantly invaded, created their own states, dynasties • The rule of the Sui • Reunification by Yang Jian in 589 • Constructions of palaces and granaries, repairing the Great Wall • Military expeditions in central Asia and Korea • High taxes and compulsory labor services • The Grand Canal • One of the world's largest waterworks before modern times • Purpose: bring abundant food supplies of the south to the north • Linked the Yangtze and the Huang-Hi • The canal integrated the economies of the south and north • The fall of the Sui • High taxes and forced labor generated hostility among the people • Military reverses in Korea • Rebellions broke out in north China beginning in 610 • Sui Yangdi was assassinated in 618, the end of the dynasty

  5. IMAGES OF SUI CHINA

  6. THE TANG DYNASTY • Founding of the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 CE) • A rebel leader seized Chang'an, proclaimed a new dynasty, the Tang • Tang Taizong • 2nd Tang emperor, a ruthless but extremely competent ruler • China enjoyed an era of unusual stability and prosperity • Extensive networks of transportation and communications • Adopted the equal-field system • Bureaucracy of merit • Recruited government officials through civil service examinations • Career bureaucrats relied on central government, loyal to the dynasty • Restored Confucianism as state ideology, training for bureaucrats • Foreign relations • Political theory: China was the Middle Kingdom, or the center of civilization • Tributary system became diplomatic policy • Tang decline • Casual and careless leadership led to dynastic crisis • Rebellion of An Lushan in 755, weakened the dynasty • The Uighurs became de facto rulers • The equal-field system deteriorated • A large scale peasant rebellion led by Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884 • Regional commanders gained power, beyond control of the emperor • The last Tang emperor abdicated his throne in 907

  7. TANG CHINA

  8. TANG ART

  9. SONG DYNASTY (960-1279 C.E.) • Song Taizu • Reigned 960-976 C.E. • Founder of the Song dynasty • Song weaknesses • Song never had military, diplomatic strength of Sui, Tang • Financial problems • Enormous bureaucracy with high salary devoured surplus • Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war • Military problems • Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces • Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry nomads • External pressures • Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north • Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads • The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279 • Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands • Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital • After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute

  10. THE SONG WORLDNORTHERN AND SOUTHERNDYNASTIES

  11. THE SONG ARTISTIC WORLD

  12. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS • An agricultural revolution • Twice flowering, fast-ripening rice increased food supplies • New agricultural techniques increased production • Population growth • 45 to 115 million inhabitants • Between 600 and 1200 C.E. • Urbanization: China most urbanized country in period • Chang'an had about 2 million residents • Hangzhou had about 1 million residents • Many cities boasted population of 100,000 or more • Commercialized agriculture • Some regions depended on other regions for food • Extreme surplus of southern rice allowed cities to flourish • Necessitate vast grain shipments to cities

  13. CH’ANG-AN & HANGZHOU

  14. NEO-CONFUCIANISM • Taoist, Buddhist Synthesis with Confucianism • Early Confucianism focused on practical issues • Politics, Public Morality, Social Relationships • Confucians drew inspiration • From Buddhism Spirituality • Logical thought • Argumentation of Buddhism • From Taoism Cosmology • Metaphysical issues: nature of soul • Man's relation with cosmos • Xenophobia Contributes, too • Invasions by nomads, Turks and Mongols threatened state • Foreign ideas began to circulate • Too many threats to society, traditions • Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.), most prominent Neo-Confucian scholar • Neo-Confucian influence • Adapted Buddhist, Taoist themes, reasoning to Confucian interests • Made Buddhism Chinese but stressed Chinese roots, values • Influenced East Asian thought • In China, it was an officially recognized creed • Influenced Korea, Vietnam, and Japan for half a millennium

  15. PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY • Developments reinforced patriarchal society • Chinese reaction to foreign ideas • Reaction to Buddhist’s gender equality • Neo-Confucianism emphasized patriarchy • Ancestor worship revived • Preserving of family • Family wealth became paramount • Results • Tightening of patriarchal structure • Reinforcing of male domination • Foot binding gained popularity during the Song • Emphasized dependence of women on men, home • Wealthy, aristocrats could afford practice, hire servants to do work • Feet of women broken, reformed around stilts • Women could not walk without pain but had to shuffle • Forced women to remain at home, dependent on others • Male sense of beauty at women’s expense • Poor, peasant women not subject to footbinding • Women had to work with men to support family • Men could not afford to have women at home, idle

  16. TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRY • Porcelain • High quality porcelain since the Tang, known as chinaware • Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid Arabia • Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and Africa • Metallurgy • Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron, steel • Iron production increased tenfold between the early 9th and 12th century • Gunpowder • Discovered by Daoist alchemists during the Tang • Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive bombs • Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia • Printing • Became common during the Tang • From block-printing to movable type • Books became widespread • Naval technology • "South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass • Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments

  17. SONG LIFE

  18. A MARKET ECONOMY • Merchants in Charge • Only period in China where merchants socially superior to aristocrats • Merchants attempted to intermarry with aristocrats, become landowners • Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as Confucian bureaucrats • Merchants tended to espouse Confucianism as way into traditional elites • Most large cities had large merchant communities • Financial instruments • Banking and credit institution • “Flying money " were letters of credit • Paper money backed by state, treasury • A cosmopolitan society • Foreign merchants in large cities of China • Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian • Chinese merchants journeyed throughout region • Economic surge in China • An economic revolution in China • Made China the wealthiest nation in the world at time • Promoted economic growth in the eastern hemisphere