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CHAPTER 3. Strategic and Financial Logistics. Learning Objectives. To appreciate how logistics can influence an organization’s strategic financial outcomes To review basic financial terminology

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CHAPTER 3


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    1. CHAPTER 3 Strategic and Financial Logistics © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    2. Learning Objectives • To appreciate how logistics can influence an organization’s strategic financial outcomes • To review basic financial terminology • To understand how the Strategic Profit Model can demonstrate the financial impact of logistics activities • To become aware of some of the more common measures of logistics performance © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    3. Strategic and Financial Logistics Key Terms • Assets • Asset turnover • Balanced scorecard (BSC) • Balance sheet • Cost leadership strategy • Differentiation strategy • Expenses (costs) • Focus strategy © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    4. Strategic and Financial Logistics Key Terms • Income statement • Liabilities • Net profit margin • Owner’s equity • Return on assets (ROA) • Revenues (sales) • Strategic Profit Model (SPM) © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    5. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Logistics managers must find ways to: • communicate how logistics capabilities provide value • support corporate strategy and success in financial terms. • Logistics resides at the functional level of the organization. • Functional units must translate corporate and business unit strategies into discrete action plans. © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    6. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Three generic strategies that can be pursued by an organization • Cost leadership strategy • Differentiation strategy • Focus strategy © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    7. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Functional level strategies exist in: • Marketing • Finance • Manufacturing • Logistics © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    8. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Logistic strategy decisions involve: • Determining the number and location of warehouses • Selecting appropriate transportation modes • Deploying inventory • Investments in technology that support logistics activities © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    9. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Logistics strategy is directly influenced by strategic decisions in functional areas of: • Marketing • Product availability, desired customer service levels, and packaging design directly influence logistics decisions • Manufacturing • Strategic decisions by manufacturing to implement just-in-time system would influence logistics decisions in warehousing, transportation and inventory management © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    10. Connecting Strategy to Financial Performance • Logistics function can positively affect the financial outcome of an organization by designing a strategy to optimally support the requirement of the business. © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    11. Basic Financial Terminology • Income statement shows for a period of time: • Revenues • Expenses • Profit • Also referred to as a profit and loss (P&L) statement © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    12. Figure 3-1: Example Income Statement © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    13. Basic Financial Terminology • Balance sheet reflects at any given point in time: • Assets • Liabilities • Owner’s equity © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    14. Figure 3-2: Example Balance Sheet

    15. Strategic Profit Model • Issues with reporting financial figures without appropriate context • Many financial measures reported as ratios • Profitability analysis is useful in assessing logistics activities • Return On Investment (ROI) is a common measure of organizational financial success • Return On Net Worth (RONW) measures profitability of funds invested in the business • Return On Assets (ROA) provides insight on how well managers utilize operational assets to generate profits © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    16. Strategic Profit Model • Return On Investment (ROI) • common measure of organizational financial success • Return On Net Worth (RONW) • measures profitability of funds invested in the business • Return On Assets (ROA) • Indicates what percentage of every dollar invested in the business is ultimately returned to the organization as profit © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    17. Strategic Profit Model • Strategic Profit Model (SPM) • provides the framework for conducting ROA analysis • Incorporates revenues and expenses to generate net profit margin • Includes assets to measure asset turnover © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    18. Figure 3-3: Strategic Profit Model Sales Gross Margin Cost of Goods Sold Net Profit Net Profit Margin Sales Variable Expenses Total Expenses Return on Assets Fixed Expenses Sales Inventory Asset Turnover Current Assets Accounts Receivable Total Assets Fixed Assets Other Current Assets

    19. Strategic Profit Model • Strategic Profit Model (SPM) • Provides a way for managers to examine how a proposed change to their logistics system influences profit performance and ROA • Fails to: • Consider the timing of cash flows • Subject to manipulation in the short run • Fails to recognize assets dedicated to specific relationships © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    20. Logistics Connections to Net Profit Margin • Net Profit Margin = net profit/sales • Multiple ways in which net profit margin can be influenced by managerial decisions • Relevant categories include: • Sales • Cost of goods sold • Total expenses © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    21. Logistics Connections to Asset Turnover • Asset turnover= total sales/total assets • Inventory is the most relevant logistics asset • Logistics decisions can influence speed at which invoices are paid – accounts receivable © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    22. Balanced Scorecard • Balance scorecard (BSC) is a strategic planning and performance management system used in industry, government, and nonprofit organizations. © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    23. Balanced Scorecard • Management should evaluate their businesses from four perspectives • Customers • Internal business processes • Learning and growth • Financial • Forces managers to look beyond traditional financial measures (more holistic approach) © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    24. Common Logistics Measures 5 types of performance in Logistics Management Systems: • Asset management • Cost • Customer service • Productivity • Logistics quality © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    25. Common Logistics Measures • Transportation • Warehousing • Inventory • Design and implementation of measures © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    26. Transportation Measures Focus: • Labor • Cost • Equipment • Energy • Transit time Measurements: • ROI • Outbound freight costs • Transportation labor productivity • On-time deliveries • In-transit damage frequency © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    27. Warehousing Measures Focus: • Labor • Cost • Time • Utilization • Administration Measurements: • ROI • Warehouse order processing costs • Warehouse labor productivity • Picking errors © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    28. Inventory Measures Focus: • Service levels • Inventory investment Measurements: • Obsolete inventory • Inventory carrying costs • Inventory turnover • Information availability © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    29. Design and Implementation of Measures • Tailored to organization and level of decision making • Data collection and analysis • Behavioral issues (change management) • Frequent communication and constant updating © Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

    30. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co. Company Facts: • Located in Fargo, N. Dakota • Industrial freezers (one size) • Distributed through public warehouses in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Los Angels, Portland, and St. Louis • Fargo warehouse Product Facts: Market Facts:

    31. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co. * Denver warehouse closed by strike march 4-19, 2009

    32. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co.

    33. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co.

    34. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co.

    35. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co. Questions • When comparing performance during the first five months of 2010 with performance in 2009, which warehouse shows the most improvement? • When comparing performance during the first five months of 2010 with performance in 2009, which warehouse shows the poorest change in performance? • When comparisons are made among all eight warehouses, which one do you think does the best job for the Brant Company? What criteria did you use? Why?

    36. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co. Questions • J. Q. is aggressive and is going to recommend that his father cancel the contract with one of the warehouses and give that business to a competing warehouse in the same city. J. Q. feels that when word of this gets around, the other warehouses they use will “shape up.” Which of the seven should J. Q. recommend be dropped? Why? • The year 2010 is nearly half over. J. Q. is told to determine how much the firm is likely to spend for warehousing at each of the eight warehouses for the last six months in 2010. Do his work for him.

    37. Case 3-1 Brant Freezer Co. Questions • When comparing the 2009 figures with the 2010 figures shown in the table, the amount budgeted for each warehouse in 2010 was greater than actual 2009 costs. How much of the increase is caused by increased volume of business (units shipped) and how much by inflation? • Use the 2009 income statement and balance sheet to complete a Strategic Profit Model for J. Q. • Holding all other information constant, what would be the effect on ROA for 2010 if warehousing costs declined 10 percent from 2009 levels?