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Creating the “Virtuous Republic”

Creating the “Virtuous Republic”

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Creating the “Virtuous Republic”

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  1. Creating the “Virtuous Republic” The Presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson 1789-1803

  2. Creating the “Virtuous Republic” • Govt. gets its authority from the citizens. • A selfless, educated citizenry. • Elections should be frequent. • Govt. should guarantee individual rights & freedoms. • Govt.’s power should be limited [checks & balances]. • The need for a written Constitution. • “E Pluribus Unum.” [“Out of many, one”] • An important role for women  raise good, virtuous citizens.[“Republican Womanhood”]. Classical view of a model republic EnlightenmentThinking The“VirtuousRepublic” “City on a hill”[John Winthrop] Ideal citizen[Cincinnatus]

  3. Washington is elected • Asked to serve as president in 1789 • Reluctant leader

  4. Judiciary Act of 1789 • Why? • Needed to define court system established by Constitution. • Supreme Court • Chief Justice • 5 associates • 3 Federal Circuit Courts • 13 federal district courts • Section 25 • Allowed State court decisions to appeal to federal courts

  5. Cabinet Cabinet Members • 3 initial Departments • State: Foreign Affairs • Thomas Jefferson • War: Military Affairs • Henry Knox • Treasury: Financial Affairs • Alexander Hamilton

  6. Hamilton vs. Jefferson

  7. Bank of the United States • Controversial! • Tied wealthy investors to government • Opponents stated the Constitution had no provision to allow government to create Bank • “Loose” vs. “Strict” • “Elastic Clause” (pg 158) • Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18

  8. Hamilton’s Economic Plan • Resolve Debt • 2/3 Federal: • Foreign & Private Citizens War Bonds • 1/3 State • Pay Off Foreign Debt • Assume State’s Debts • Needed State support for government • Issue New Bonds to pay Citizens Back

  9. Debt Bill • Southern states upset most had paid back debt  did not want to pay taxes to pay off Northern debt • Compromise to allow Hamilton’s economic plan to pass • Capital moved to Washington, DC to get southern states to agree to Debt bill

  10. Foreign Relations • 1. The French Revolution • Views: • Democrat Republicans • Federalists • President Washington • Jefferson resigns his post in 1793

  11. 2. Spain • Pickney’s Treaty • 3. England • The Jay Treaty

  12. Whiskey Rebellion • 2 causes • Protective Tariff instituted on imported goods from Europe • Excise Tax on domestic manufactured whiskey • Effect • Western frontiersmen rebel • Were met by 15,000 militia men led by Washington & Hamilton • Demonstrated Federal Government’s power

  13. Issues with Native Americans • Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1792 • Treaty of Grenville

  14. John Adams 1796-1800

  15. Election of 1796 • Washington does not run for a 3rd term • The issue of the 1796 election

  16. Early Troubles for a New Nation

  17. “XYZ” Affair - 1798 • Jay Treaty leads to increased tensions with France • Adams sends 3 diplomats to French foreign minister • Instead, diplomats see 3 low-level officials Adams refers to as “Agent X, Y, Z” in report to Congress • Diplomats demand $250,000 to see Foreign Minister • Scandal becomes known as XYZ Affair • Effect: • Great Anti-French sentiments • Creation of Navy department • George Washington comes out of retirement to head 50,000 troops • Alien & Sedition Acts -1798

  18. Alien & Sedition Acts vs. Virginia & Kentucky Resolution • Alien & Sedition Acts • Raised residence acts for American citizenship to 14 years • President could deport any undesirable • Set fines/jail terms for anyone expressing “false, scandalous, or malicious statements” against government • Virginia & Kentucky Resolution were reaction • Allowed state governments to nullify – consider void – any act of Congress they felt unconstitutional

  19. Thomas Jefferson 1800-1810

  20. Election of 1800 • Adams & Pinckney (Federalists) • Jefferson & Burr (Dem.-Republicans) • Dem.-Republicans win • However, Jefferson & Burr tie with electoral votes • Expose Flaw in system

  21. Election of 1800 Tally Jefferson Adams Pinckney Jay Burr

  22. Effects of Election of 1800 • 2 distinct political parties • 12th Amendment • Electors cast separate ballots for president & vice-president • Defined American political system still used today

  23. Jeffersonian Presidency • Simplifying the presidency • Reduced the government • Cut costs • Reduced army & navy • Eliminated internal taxes • Reduced role of National bank • Favored Free Trade • Replaced Federalist judges with Dem-Repub ones • Foreign Policy

  24. Marbury vs. Madison - 1803 • Result of Judiciary Act of 1801 • Adams packed court w/ Midnight Judges • Why? • Supreme Court ruled “Midnight Judges” were unconstitutional • Why? • Set precedent of judicial review • What is this?

  25. Louisiana Purchase • Causes: • Spain gives land to France • France decides not to pursue American empire • Napoleon sells land for 15 million • Effects: • Doubles America’s size • Lewis & Clark appointed to lead expedition of new territory

  26. Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase doubled US size Lewis & Clark exploration

  27. Publicity Stunt Gone Wrong • Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel • Long standing hatred of each other • July 11, 1804, Burr and Hamilton toss dice to see who goes first • Hamilton shoots, but shoots in the air • Burr shoots Hamilton right in the chest • Hamilton’s death further weakens the Federalist Party presence in Congress