Where is Brazil? • Located in northeastern South America • 3,287,350 sq. mi and borders the Atlantic Ocean • 5th largest country in the world • Spans four time zones, the westernmost is the same as Eastern Standard Time in the US
General Geography • Highest point: Pico da Neblina at 9,823 ft, and the lowest point is at sea level. • Shares 9,824 miles of borders with Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. • Does not border Ecuador or Chile
Geography (cont.) • Brazil possesses the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, located 220 miles northeast of its “horn”
Mountains and Coast • Serra do Mar mountain range on the Atlantic coast • Serra do Espinhaço Range, the largest in area • The highest traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela. The coastal zone is noted for 3670 miles of tropical beaches interspersed with mangroves, lagoons, dunes, and coral reefs
River System • One of the world's most extensive river systems • 8 drainage basins into the Atlantic • More than half of the total drainage area is accounted by the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia • Amazon stretches across 45.7% of the country from the Andes and to the Atlantic • Amazon contains 1/5 of the worlds fresh water
Rivers (cont.) • Major river system in the NE is the Rio Sao Francisco which is about 1000 miles and flows from the south central area to the Northeast
Rivers • The Paraná flows south into the Río de la Plata Basin. • The Paraná reaches the Atlantic between Argentina and Uruguay. • Largest contiguous wetlands in the world, covering ( 230,000 square kilometers) are located here and called the Pantanal
Rivers as Transportation • Tributaries of the Amazon are navigable. • upstream vessels encounter rapids and waterfalls, sandbars, trees, and other obstacles • Oceangoing vessels can travel as far as 2,430 miles upstream, reaching Iquitos in Peru • The Amazon river system was the principal means of access until new roads became more important in the 1970s. • The São Francisco was also used for transportation • Dams and locks in the Paraná system made it an important artery for interstate and international trade in the 1990s.
The Rainforest • The Tropical soils of Brazil are resposible for producing approximately 70 million tons of grain plants every year • The Deeper into the rain forest you go the worse the fertility of the land due to insufficient sunlight and water
Deforestation • Deforestation of the Amazon has been primarily for logging and not for clearing farm land • There are many more varieties of marketable woods so deforestation had been quite lucrative • About 16% of the Amazon has been cleared
Climate • 90% is within the tropical zone • Near the equator there is very little variation in temerature thoughout the seasons • To the south there is frost in the winter • In the north they have extreme temperatures reaching above 40° C during the summer. • There is about 1,000 to 1,500 millimeters of rain per year mostly between December and April • Some areas of the Amazon reach over 3,000 millimeters of rainfall in one year.
Geographic Regions • 26 States and the Federal District • 5 regions: • North • Northeast • Southeast • South • Center west. • States are broken down further into municipalities (similar to counties in the US)
The “Native” People of Brazil • The Siberian Ice Age Hypothesis • Native American peoples descended from migrant peoples from North Asia who entered America across the Bering Strait in at least three separate waves. • The American Aborigines hypothesis • Some recent finds (notably the Luzia skeleton in Lagoa Santa) are claimed to be distinct from the Asian genotype and are more similar to African and Australian Aborigines
The Indigenous Population • British historian John Hemming estimated 2,431,000 people for Brazil as a whole • Many died as a result of European diseases • Four “families” (based on language): • Gê Speakers • Tupi Speakers • Carib Speakers • Arawak Speakers • Indians viewed as slave labor
The Colonial Era: 1500-1815 • 1500s, Cabral lands on the coast • Only product was brazilwood • Colonization was influenced by the Catholic Church • French began arriving in the 16th century • Dutch invaded Brazil & occupied the sugarcane growing belt in the NE from 1630-1654 • Gold and diamond mining displaces sugar as major products • Minas Conspiracy 1789 • Tiradentes plots independence 1792
The Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil: 1815-1821 • 1815 the crown declares Brazil a kingdom equal to Portugal and João • 1817 "Pernambuccan revolution" crushed • Monarchy lasts another 67 years after independence declared in 1822
The Empire: 1822-1829 • September 7, 1822 Dom Pedro I declares Brazil Independent Constitution of 1824 creates three governmental powers--executive, legislative, and judicial--and a fourth, the moderating power (Emperor) August 29, 1825 Britain and Portugal recognize Brazilian independence by signing a treaty
The Regency Era: 1831-1840 • turmoil as local factions struggled to gain control • War of the Farrapos (ragamuffins), Balaiada Rebellion in Maranhao in 1838-41, and the ones in Minas Gerais and São Paulo in 1842, and other propelled by antiregency and promonarchial sentiments • 1834 Pedro dies, no more political glue to hold allies together • Military reorganizes under the leadership of Luís Alves de Lima e Silva • Vision of Brazil as a nation-state emerges
The Second Empire: 1840-89 • 1850 British pressure forces Brazil to outlaw the slave trade • War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870): Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay vs. Paraguay • 1871 Children born to Brazilian slaves no longer considered slaves • 1888 Princess Isabel issues the Golden Law that abolishes slavery
The Republican Era: 1889-1930 • 1889 Dom Pedro II is deposed and a provisional republic headed by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca is installed, central government controlled by coffee interests. • Constitution of 1891: United States of Brazil restores autonomy to the states (26 states and one federal district) • Church and state are separated • Republicans turn to positivism • New Flag with motto “Order and Progress” • 1897 Canudos war in Bahia
The Republican Era: 1889-1930 • Rubber boom lasts until 1912 • Dumont makes first registered flight in a heavier than air machine in Paris in 1906 • Much immigration from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, and Japan between 1888 and 1928 • 1924 Army rebellion led by Luis Carlos Prestes demanding social and economic reform
Getúlio Vargas: 1930-1945 • Revolution of 1930; Oct. 24 President Washington Luis is ousted • Constitution of 1934 shows direct influence of Italian Fascism • Vargas rules for 15 years as constitutional president • 1937 fascist “Estado Novo” dictatorship under Vargas begins
Modernization: 1945-1964 • 1945 Vargas deposed by a military coup • Three dominant parties: Brazilian Labor Party, Social Democratic Party, and National Democratic Union General Eurico Gaspar Dutra is elected president and serves from 1946 to 1951 • 1951 Vargas is President again • Kubitschek President from 1956-1961 • 1960 New capital established at Brasilia • Populism and economic nationalism are casualties • 1964 military overthrows President Goulart
The Military Regime: 1964-1985 • For the next 21 years, Brazil was ruled by a succession of military government • Medici Administration • Geisel Administration • Figueiredo Administration The country's economy prospered, but constitutional freedoms like free speech suspended
Democracy: 1985-1998 • Civilian government restored in 1985 with the election of Tancredo de Almeida Neves • 1988 New Federal Constitution enacted • 1989 Collor de Mello elected • Itamar Franco and the “Real Plan” • Fernando Cardoso elected in 1994
Luiz Ignacio Lula Da Silva • First elected in 2003 • Brazil's first elected leftwing president • Currently in run-off elections
Population • 188,078,227 people • Most populous in all of Latin America • 5th most populous country in the world • 6th with inclusion of European Union
Population by Religion • Roman Catholic: 73.6% • Protestant: 15.4% • Spiritualist: 1.3% • Bantu/voodoo: 0.3% • Other/none: 9.4%
Population by Age Group • 0-14 years : 25.8 % • 15-64 years: 68.1% • 65 years and older: 6.1%
Population Growth • Population Growth Rate: 1.04% • Birth Rate: 16.56 births/1,000 population • Death Rate: 6.17 deaths/1,000 population • Infant Mortality Rate: 28.6 deaths/1,000 • Net Migration Rate: -0.03 migrants/1,000
Population by Sex • At Birth: 1.05 male(s)/female • Under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female • 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female • 65 years and older: 0.7 male(s)/female • Total Population: 0.98 male(s)/female
Population by Ethnicity • White: 53.7% • Mulatto: 38.5% • Black: 6.2% • Other: 1.6% • Largest Japanese population outside Japan • 1.5 million Japanese-Brazilians • “Previous studies have claimed that around 80% of Brazilians possess African heritage”
Racism • Brazil was the largest single destination for enslaved Africans • Due to mining and sugar cane production • Estimated 4 million slaves • Approximately 35% of all slaves worldwide
Racism (cont.) • Illiteracy rate for Afro-Brazilians is 26 percent, compared to 10 percent for whites • A black man earns on average 48 percent less than his white counterpart in the same job • according to the Sao Paulo State Socio-Economic Research Foundation • In Congress, only 12 of the 513 members of the Chamber of Deputies and two of the 81 senators are of African ancestry
HIV/AIDS • Adult Prevalence Rate: 0.7% • #63 of 168 countries • People Living with AIDS: 660,000 • #15 of 164 countries • Deaths (yearly): 15,000 • #32 of 148 countries
HIV/AIDS (cont.) • “Brazil has one of the world's best programs for the prevention and treatment of AIDS” • The world director of the United Nations Joint Program for HIV/AIDS (Unaids): Peter Piot • The Brazilian government spends US$ 229.6 million (R$ 700 million) annually on AIDS treatment • Condom consumption grew from 150 million in 1994 to over 600 million in 2003
Samba-widely known as Brazilian’s national musical style under the strong influence of immigrant black people from the Brazilian state of Bahia Bossa Nova- Brazilian music created by Antonio Carlos Jobin and Joao Gilberto; it derives form Samba but it is more harmonically complex Music
Music (Cont.) • Axe- originated in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; which come from a ritual greeting that means good vibration. • Tropicalia- the cultural revolution that re-defined Brazilian art, music and fashion in the 1960s and beyond. • Gilberto Gil
Capoeira • Brazilian martial art developed initially by African slaves in Brazil at the start of the colonial period • Done in a “roda” spectators surrounding the people that are performing, they interact by clapping along with the beat and sometimes even joining them. There are two types of Capoeira • Capoeira Angola • Capoeira Regional
Carnaval • It is a traditional Festival that takes place in Rio de Janeiro. • even though there are many other carnavals going on in different cities with different themes. • 4-day celebration: It starts on Saturday, and ends on Fat Tuesday, Sunday is seven weeks before Easter Sunday. The dates change every year but this year it was on Feb 25 through the 28.
Carnaval (Cont.) • The first records of Carnival festivities in Rio de Janeiro date back to 1723. Immigrants from the Portuguese islands of Açores, Madeira and Cabo Verde introduced the Entrudo • Every one can participate in the carnival, but it was not always this way. The Grandes Sociedadesor Great Societies was a more organized parade that debuted in 1855, with the presence of the Emperor himself.
Dress Code • For Women • Keep in mind that Brazilians are very fashion conscious and follow European styles! • Depending on what part of Brazil you go to and the time of the year, you can either wear a stylish business suit or a dress with a jacket. • Take a good quality tote bag with you that zipped up - one that fits your laptop during the day and that you can wear when you go out with your Brazilian friends at night - beware of sticky fingers anywhere you go.
Dress Code • For Men • Invest on the best suit you can afford with a European design and cut and a good-looking silk tie - one that shows you're a man of good taste. • Good shoes and a good leather belt are a must. • Make sure you have a good haircut and look well-groomed and check your fingernails, at all times.
What not to wear in Brazil • Women • Try not to wear blouses with bows and try to stick to crisp elegant-looking shirts and tops. • Avoid polyester and double-knits • Makeup, because of the humidity in Brazil try to avoid eye-shadows and mascaras you would not want your makeup running down your face
What not to wear in Brazil • Men • DO NOT under any circumstances wear a tie with a short-sleeved shirt. • Never, ever, wear socks with sandals when going casual • Jeans no holes or patches on them
SOCCER • Brazil is known for its Soccer! • It is the only nation to have competed in every FIFA World Cup tournament and they have won the tournament a record five times. • Five World Cup Titles • The country is renowned for the quality of its players, including Ronaldo, Pele, Romario, Roberto Carlos, Jairzinho,Rivelino, Zico, Carlos Alberto, Rivaldo, Garrincha, Kaka, and the current holder of the title of best football player in the world, Ronaldinho.