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The Scientific Revolution

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  1. The Scientific Revolution

  2. Blinded by Science • During the Middle Ages the Catholic Church had control over the political and social aspects of the world • Few if any were concerned with big picture concepts • The serfs and peasants were worried about just surviving • The nobility was concerned about events in their small piece of the world

  3. Blinded by Science • What changed that lead people to become involved in science • The Renaissance and later the Protestant Reformation sparked interest in questioning the world and authority • The growth of universities and education lead to the natural (Socratic) ideal of questioning ideas • The revival of Greek and Roman writings (Aristotle, Galen, Socrates) and the idea of humanism lead to the idea of natural laws.

  4. Blinded by Science • Copernicus • Prior to Copernicus it was believed that the Earth was the center of the Universe • In 1543 Copernicus wrote in his book The Revolution of Heavenly Bodies that the earth rotated around the sun and that the earth was actually a sphere and rotated on an axis • Many scholars had already accepted that the earth was a sphere but it was believed that the earth was the center of the universe

  5. Blinded by Science • Copernicus used math to determine that the geocentric theory was wrong • Even so Copernicus did not wish to publish his theory for fear of the Catholic Church

  6. Blinded by Science • Galileo • In 1632 Galileo backed up Copernicus and his theories. • Galileo wrote his works in Italian and with the new printing press the information was spread to the common man

  7. Blinded by Science • Galileo wanted to disprove Ptolemy and his geocentric theory • Galileo showed that the rotation of the earth on its axis produced the rotation of the heavens • Furthermore the changes of the stars and their position in the sky coupled with the position of the sun proved that the earth rotated around the sun

  8. Blinded by Science • The Catholic Church was upset with Galileo because they used the accepted model of geocentric • Galileo was called to Rome for an Inquisition for teaching and writing doctrine contrary to the Holy Scripture • Galileo was forced to recant his work, his book was placed on the Forbidden Book Index were it remained until 1822 and placed under house arrest for the rest of his life

  9. Blinded by Science • Reason • Scholasticism was based on the Aristotelianism idea of using logic and reason to determine the truth • However reason was not good enough-Ones’ ideas and thoughts needed to be proved • Out of this was born the scientific method • Document, demonstrate, experiment, and prove using mathematical precision

  10. The Sky is Falling[ • Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • Built and observatory and recorded his observations • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • Developed the law of planetary motion based on math and observations

  11. “I smell Bacon” • Francis Bacon (1561-1626) • Worked on inductive logic • Believed that scientist should amass data and make observations and evaluations through experimentation • Bacon stated that man should study science not for the sake of studying science but to improve the human condition

  12. Words of Wisdom from Bacon • Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics, subtle; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. • If a man be gracious and courteous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world. • If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts, but if he will content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties. • Imagination was given to man to compensate him for what he is not; a sense of humor to console him for what he is. • In order for the light to shine so brightly, the darkness must be present. • Knowledge is power.

  13. Apples, get your apples here! • Isaac Newton • Newton was the scientist that understood science in its totality and was able to take the discoveries of the day and tie them together

  14. Apples, get your apples here! • Newton would be famous for a number of discoveries • Laws of motion, laws of thermodynamics, the concept of gravity, the math of calculus and Newtonian physics • His book Principia (1687) lead to an intellectual movement in Europe • It would be until Einstein and his theory of relativity in the 20th century would Newton’s ideas be challenged or altered.

  15. Inventions • Telescope • Microscope • Pendulum clock • Thermometer • Barometer

  16. New Discoveries • States of matter • Liquid, gas and solid • Light • Made of particles or waves • All living creatures were are made up of cells • The circulation of blood and the idea of small blood vessels known as capillaries that carried blood to the cells

  17. What the Scientific Rev. Meant • These new ideas would eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution • It caused a division in the world and among scientist • While some scientist tried to maintain their religious beliefs while they studied science many more began to reject the Christian church • Some became atheists (Don’t believe in God) • Others became Deists (God existed but played only a limited role in the lives of humans) • The Protestant Reformation challenged the Pope on the theological ideas while the Scientific Revolution challenged the Pope on his authority of science and math. The religious implications of the Scientific Rev. where huge.