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Chapter 21. The Progressive Spirit of Reform 1868 - 1920. Essential Question. How did Americans benefit from Progressive reforms?. I. The Gilded Age and the Progressive Movement. Late 1800’s – highlights inequality in politics and society

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Chapter 21

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    1. Chapter 21 The Progressive Spirit of Reform 1868 - 1920

    2. Essential Question • How did Americans benefit from Progressive reforms?

    3. I. The Gilded Age and the Progressive Movement • Late 1800’s – highlights inequality in politics and society • Political Machines: powerful organizations that used both legal and illegal methods to get their candidates to public office • Stuffed ballot boxes • Bribed vote counters • Controlled local governments • Run by a “boss” • Tammany Hall: New York City’s political machine run by William Tweed

    4. Cleaning Up Corruption • Because of scandal in Grant’s Administration, public calls for changes in civil service - government job system and ending the spoils system – rewards political supporters with government jobs • July 2, 1881, President James Garfield shot by insane job seeker Charles Guiteau

    5. The Push for Reforms • After Garfield’s death, President Chester Arthur passed the Pendleton Civil Service Act: required job applicants to pass a test before being hired • If New York time is three hours ahead of San Francisco time, what time would it be in New York if a San Francisco clock one hour behind the time shows 4 o'clock? • 1 o'clock • 6 o'clock • 7 o'clock • 8 o'clock

    6. POPULISM • Farm prices begin to fall because farmers grew more than Americans demanded • Farmers wanted: • Lower tariffs (taxes on imports/exports) to increase foreign demand for farm products • Republicans blocked lowering tariffs to protect American businesses

    7. POPULISM • Populist Party: “people’s party” – wanted reforms: • Government ownership of railroads • Graduated income tax • 8-hour work day • Senators elected directly by the people • Recall • Referendum • Initiative

    8. PANIC OF 1893 • Populist Party gets 1 million popular votes in the 1892 Presidential Election – about 20% of the total number • Panic of 1893: • Economic depression – farmers hit hard • Reform the money system • Backed by GOLD – dollar has more value – prices down • Backed by SILVER – more dollars available – prices up

    9. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1896 • Republican: William McKinley • Backed business and gold standard • Wizard of Oz? • Democrat: William Jennings Bryan • Backed farmers and silver standard • 36 years old • Cross of Gold Speech – “you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold!”

    10. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1896 • William McKinley • William Jennings Bryan

    11. Progressives and Muckrakers • Progressives: reformers working to improve society in late 1800’s • Muckrakers: journalists who exposed the filth of society • Lincoln Steffens – exposed corruption in St. Louis government • Ida Tarbell - criticized unfair business practices of Standard Oil • “There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.” • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, 1906

    12. PROGRESSIVE REFORM MOVEMENT • Progressive Reforms: • Correct injustices in society • End government corruption • End monopoly power of big business • Improve factory conditions/end child labor • End alcoholism • Grant women’s suffrage (right to vote)

    13. Reform Successes • Urban reform with city planners, civil engineers, and sanitation engineers • States passed laws requiring children to attend school • John Dewey: children should learn problem solving skills • American Medical Association (AMA) improved education of medical professionals and supported laws to protect public health

    14. Expansion of Voting Power • Progressives wanted to reduce the power of political machines • 17th Amendment: direct election of senators • Recall: a vote to remove an official before the end of the term • Initiative: allowed voters to propose a new law by collecting signatures on a petition • Referendum: permitted voters to approve or reject laws proposed or passed by a government body

    15. Robert La Follette • Wisconsin governor • Hired experts to help write new laws and work in state agencies • Made information available to public on how politicians voted

    16. II. Reforming the Workplace • In 1900, 1.75 million children age 15 and under worked in factories, mines, and mills • 1916 and 1919 federal child labor laws passed, but struck down as unconstitutional • Parents ignored laws or told children to lie about their ages to work

    17. Safety and Working Conditions • Workplace accidents were common (35,000 killed in 1900) • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: New York City, 1911 - 146 women killed because doors were locked by owners • Workers’ Compensation Laws: guaranteed portion of lost wages to workers injured on job • Working conditions still remained poor however

    18. The Courts and Labor • Business leaders believed the economy should operate without government interference • 1905 - Lochner v. New York: Court rules that states cannot restrict the right of workers and employers to enter into any type of labor agreement • 1908 – Muller v. Oregon: Court upheld laws restricting women’s work hours because the laws protected women’s health

    19. Labor Organizations • Unions led to improved working conditions • AFL and Gompers supported capitalism: private businesses run most industries and competition determines price of goods • International Workers of the World (IWW) led by “Big Bill” Haywood supported socialism: government owns and operates a country’s means of production

    20. III. The Rights of Women and Minorities • Many women began attending college and putting their education into reform movements • Temperance: avoiding alcohol, blamed many social problems on drinking • 18th Amendment: banned production, sale, and transportation of alcohol in the U.S. • Women’s Suffrage • National American Woman Suffrage Association: founded by Carrie Catt • National Women’s Party: founded by Alice Paul • 19th Amendment

    21. African Americans Challenge Discrimination • Discrimination and segregation still going on • Booker T. Washington: former slave who encouraged African Americans to improve education and economic well-being to end discrimination • Ida B. Wells: spoke out against lynching (murdered by mobs) • W.E.B. Du Bois: believed African Americans should demand equal rights and stand up to unjust treatment – founded the N.A.A.C.P:National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

    22. IV. Progressive Presidents • In 1901, President William McKinley was killed by an anarchist named Leon Czolgosz • Vice President Theodore Roosevelt becomes the youngest president in American history (42 years old)

    23. Theodore Roosevelt • Square Deal • Interest of all people should be balanced for public good • 1902 coal strike • Regulating Big Business • Meat Inspection Act • Pure Food and Drug Act • Used Sherman Anti-Trust Act to break monopolies • Conservation • Protect nature and resources

    24. William Howard Taft • Moved more cautiously toward reform than Roosevelt, which angered many Progressives • Payne-Aldrich Tariff: reduced the rates on imported goods

    25. Woodrow Wilson • A split in the Republican Party allowed Wilson to win in 1912 • 16th Amendment: allows federal government to impose income taxes • Federal Reserve Act: created the Federal Reserve banking system • Federal Trade Commission: power to investigate and punish unfair trade practices