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United States Lighthouse Service. US Lighthouse Service. Administrative History Lighthouse Technology Types of Lighthouses Distinct Lighthouses People of the USLHS Lightships and Tenders Legacy of the USLHS Lighthouses in the USCG after 1939. Administrative History.

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United States Lighthouse Service


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. United States Lighthouse Service

    2. US Lighthouse Service • Administrative History • Lighthouse Technology • Types of Lighthouses • Distinct Lighthouses • People of the USLHS • Lightships and Tenders • Legacy of the USLHS • Lighthouses in the USCG after 1939

    3. AdministrativeHistory

    4. Earliest Aids to Navigation • Early Navigation • Daymarks • Fires ashore • Emergence of maritime commerce • Pharos of Alexandria • Pharologists Artist’s depiction of Pharos of Alexandria

    5. Early Lights in America • Havana, Cuba • 1716-Little Brewster Island • Prior to 1775 • Sandy Hook British ship passes the light on Little Brewster Island Light at Sandy Hook, NJ

    6. New Nation • 1783 • Articles of Confederation • Constitutional Convention • Constitution • First Congress • Secretary of the Treasury

    7. Early Administration • Albert Gallatin • 1820 • Construction to 1820 Albert Gallatin

    8. Stephen Pleasanton1820-1852 • Fifth Auditor (1820-1852) • “Lowest Bidder” • Predecessors • Expanding US Stephen Pleasanton

    9. THE LIGHTHOUSE BOARD(1852-1910) • 1851 • 1852 • Lighthouse Districts • Inspectors • Instructions • Light Lists 1880 Regulations 1893 Light List Map of 5th Lighthouse District in 1883

    10. Bureau of Lighthouses • 1903 • 1910 • Organization • George R. Putnam George Putnam President Theodore Roosevelt

    11. USLHS Joins the USCG • Reorganization Plan No. 11 • Efficiency & Economy • Integration of 5,200 personnel and other assets • 7 July 1939

    12. LighthouseTechnology

    13. Lenses to the 1800s • Plano-Convex Lens • Buffon Lens

    14. Early Lamps Kettle Lamp Pan Lamp Spider Lamp Argand Lamp and Reflector

    15. Illuminants • Wood & Coal • Candles • Oils • Sperm Oil • Colza Oil • Lard Oil • Kerosene • Electricity The Unveiling of the Statue of Liberty in 1886

    16. Augustin-Jean Fresnel • 1788 • Wave Optics • Fresnel Lens • Intensification of light • 1827 Augustin-Jean Fresnel

    17. Orders of Fresnel Lenses • First through Sixth Orders • Original classifications

    18. First Order Lens

    19. Comparing Lens Orders

    20. Fixed & Revolving Lenses Fixed Lens Revolving Lens

    21. Types ofLighthouses

    22. PRE-FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1716-1789) • 12 Lighthouses • Wood or Stone • 90 feet • Questions Sandy Hook, NJ

    23. EARLY FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1789-1820) • 1789 • George Washington • Albert Gallatin • Cut Stones & Brick • 11 Survive Portland Head, ME Old Tower at Cape Henry, VA Georgetown Harbor, SC

    24. THE FIFTH AUDITOR OF THETRESURY'S LIGHTHOUSES(1820-1852) • “Lowest Bidder” • Matinicus Rock • Problems Matinicus Rock, ME

    25. PILE FOUNDATION • John Phillips • Henry Whiteside • Brandywine Shoals • Desdemona Sands Old Brandywine Shoal, NJ Cover to Desdemona Sand Specifications

    26. PROTECTED SCREW PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1850- ?) • 1850 • Alexander Mitchell • Iron Stilts • Technology Drum Point, MD

    27. EXPOSED, SCREW-PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1852-1880) • 1852 • Florida reefs • Carysfort Reef • Civil War Fowey Rocks, FL Sombrero Key, FL Carysfort Reef, FL

    28. Straight-Pile Tubular Skeletal Towers • Cast & Wrought Iron Piles Southwest Reef, LA

    29. WAVE-SWEPT LIGHTHOUSES(1850-1906) • John Smeaton • Minots Ledge • “I Love You” Light • St. Georges Reef & Mile Rock St. Georges Reef, CA Plan of Minots Ledge, MA Mile Rock, CA

    30. TALL BRICK TOWERS(1857-1876) • Cape Hatteras • 1859 • Conical • Construction techniques • Suggestions • 14 of 15 Pensacola, FL Cape Hatteras, NC Fire Island, NY

    31. CAST IRON LIGHTHOUSES • Late 1830s • Light & inexpensive construction • Destruction Island Destruction Island, WA

    32. CRIB LIGHTHOUSES • 1870s • Great Lakes • White Shoal Spectacle Reef, MI White Shoal, MI Poe Reef, MI

    33. COFFERDAM LIGHTHOUSES • Dry site • Shallow water • Wooden walls Craighill Channel Upper Front Range, MD Robbins Reef, NY

    34. UNDER-WATER FOUNDATION LIGHTHOUSES • Man-made foundations/Underwater ledges • Race Rock • Stratford Shoal • New London Ledge Stratford Shoal, CT New London Ledge, CT Race Rock, NY

    35. CAISSON LIGHTHOUSES • Iron technology • Lawrence Potts • Expense • Duxbury Bloody Point, MD Duxbury, MA

    36. SUBMARINE SITE (PNEUMATIC CAISSONS) LIGHTHOUSES • Special Preparation • Double bottom • Cellar • Caissons vs. Screw-Piles Wolf Trap, VA

    37. BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSES • Unique challenges • Light, but sturdy • Keeper’s Quarters • Great Lakes Cleveland Harbor East Pierhead , OH Grand Haven South Pierhead Rear Range, MI

    38. SKELETON TOWER LIGHTHOUSES • Pre-fabricated • Low wind resistance • Coney Island Hog Island, VA Coney Island, NY

    39. REINFORCED CONCRETE LIGHTHOUSES(1908-1948) • Superior to metals • Replace brick • Point Arena • Oak Island Point Arena, CA Oak Island, NC

    40. Distinct Lighthouses

    41. Navesink Twin Lights

    42. Split Rock

    43. Makapuu Point

    44. Jeffrey’s Hook

    45. Point Fermin & Hereford Inlet Point Fermin Hereford Inlet

    46. Sabine Pass

    47. Cape St. Elias

    48. Oyster Bayou

    49. Statue of Liberty

    50. Alcatraz