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United States Lighthouse Service

United States Lighthouse Service

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United States Lighthouse Service

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  1. United States Lighthouse Service

  2. US Lighthouse Service • Administrative History • Lighthouse Technology • Types of Lighthouses • Distinct Lighthouses • People of the USLHS • Lightships and Tenders • Legacy of the USLHS • Lighthouses in the USCG after 1939

  3. AdministrativeHistory

  4. Earliest Aids to Navigation • Early Navigation • Daymarks • Fires ashore • Emergence of maritime commerce • Pharos of Alexandria • Pharologists Artist’s depiction of Pharos of Alexandria

  5. Early Lights in America • Havana, Cuba • 1716-Little Brewster Island • Prior to 1775 • Sandy Hook British ship passes the light on Little Brewster Island Light at Sandy Hook, NJ

  6. New Nation • 1783 • Articles of Confederation • Constitutional Convention • Constitution • First Congress • Secretary of the Treasury

  7. Early Administration • Albert Gallatin • 1820 • Construction to 1820 Albert Gallatin

  8. Stephen Pleasanton1820-1852 • Fifth Auditor (1820-1852) • “Lowest Bidder” • Predecessors • Expanding US Stephen Pleasanton

  9. THE LIGHTHOUSE BOARD(1852-1910) • 1851 • 1852 • Lighthouse Districts • Inspectors • Instructions • Light Lists 1880 Regulations 1893 Light List Map of 5th Lighthouse District in 1883

  10. Bureau of Lighthouses • 1903 • 1910 • Organization • George R. Putnam George Putnam President Theodore Roosevelt

  11. USLHS Joins the USCG • Reorganization Plan No. 11 • Efficiency & Economy • Integration of 5,200 personnel and other assets • 7 July 1939

  12. LighthouseTechnology

  13. Lenses to the 1800s • Plano-Convex Lens • Buffon Lens

  14. Early Lamps Kettle Lamp Pan Lamp Spider Lamp Argand Lamp and Reflector

  15. Illuminants • Wood & Coal • Candles • Oils • Sperm Oil • Colza Oil • Lard Oil • Kerosene • Electricity The Unveiling of the Statue of Liberty in 1886

  16. Augustin-Jean Fresnel • 1788 • Wave Optics • Fresnel Lens • Intensification of light • 1827 Augustin-Jean Fresnel

  17. Orders of Fresnel Lenses • First through Sixth Orders • Original classifications

  18. First Order Lens

  19. Comparing Lens Orders

  20. Fixed & Revolving Lenses Fixed Lens Revolving Lens

  21. Types ofLighthouses

  22. PRE-FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1716-1789) • 12 Lighthouses • Wood or Stone • 90 feet • Questions Sandy Hook, NJ

  23. EARLY FEDERAL ERA LIGHTHOUSES(1789-1820) • 1789 • George Washington • Albert Gallatin • Cut Stones & Brick • 11 Survive Portland Head, ME Old Tower at Cape Henry, VA Georgetown Harbor, SC

  24. THE FIFTH AUDITOR OF THETRESURY'S LIGHTHOUSES(1820-1852) • “Lowest Bidder” • Matinicus Rock • Problems Matinicus Rock, ME

  25. PILE FOUNDATION • John Phillips • Henry Whiteside • Brandywine Shoals • Desdemona Sands Old Brandywine Shoal, NJ Cover to Desdemona Sand Specifications

  26. PROTECTED SCREW PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1850- ?) • 1850 • Alexander Mitchell • Iron Stilts • Technology Drum Point, MD

  27. EXPOSED, SCREW-PILE LIGHTHOUSES(1852-1880) • 1852 • Florida reefs • Carysfort Reef • Civil War Fowey Rocks, FL Sombrero Key, FL Carysfort Reef, FL

  28. Straight-Pile Tubular Skeletal Towers • Cast & Wrought Iron Piles Southwest Reef, LA

  29. WAVE-SWEPT LIGHTHOUSES(1850-1906) • John Smeaton • Minots Ledge • “I Love You” Light • St. Georges Reef & Mile Rock St. Georges Reef, CA Plan of Minots Ledge, MA Mile Rock, CA

  30. TALL BRICK TOWERS(1857-1876) • Cape Hatteras • 1859 • Conical • Construction techniques • Suggestions • 14 of 15 Pensacola, FL Cape Hatteras, NC Fire Island, NY

  31. CAST IRON LIGHTHOUSES • Late 1830s • Light & inexpensive construction • Destruction Island Destruction Island, WA

  32. CRIB LIGHTHOUSES • 1870s • Great Lakes • White Shoal Spectacle Reef, MI White Shoal, MI Poe Reef, MI

  33. COFFERDAM LIGHTHOUSES • Dry site • Shallow water • Wooden walls Craighill Channel Upper Front Range, MD Robbins Reef, NY

  34. UNDER-WATER FOUNDATION LIGHTHOUSES • Man-made foundations/Underwater ledges • Race Rock • Stratford Shoal • New London Ledge Stratford Shoal, CT New London Ledge, CT Race Rock, NY

  35. CAISSON LIGHTHOUSES • Iron technology • Lawrence Potts • Expense • Duxbury Bloody Point, MD Duxbury, MA

  36. SUBMARINE SITE (PNEUMATIC CAISSONS) LIGHTHOUSES • Special Preparation • Double bottom • Cellar • Caissons vs. Screw-Piles Wolf Trap, VA

  37. BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSES • Unique challenges • Light, but sturdy • Keeper’s Quarters • Great Lakes Cleveland Harbor East Pierhead , OH Grand Haven South Pierhead Rear Range, MI

  38. SKELETON TOWER LIGHTHOUSES • Pre-fabricated • Low wind resistance • Coney Island Hog Island, VA Coney Island, NY

  39. REINFORCED CONCRETE LIGHTHOUSES(1908-1948) • Superior to metals • Replace brick • Point Arena • Oak Island Point Arena, CA Oak Island, NC

  40. Distinct Lighthouses

  41. Navesink Twin Lights

  42. Split Rock

  43. Makapuu Point

  44. Jeffrey’s Hook

  45. Point Fermin & Hereford Inlet Point Fermin Hereford Inlet

  46. Sabine Pass

  47. Cape St. Elias

  48. Oyster Bayou

  49. Statue of Liberty

  50. Alcatraz