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Where is our Western Boundary? What is our Southern Boundary? How long had westward expansion been happening? How is the new Constitution working?. United States. GW was against alliances with other nations and political parties. GW favored a unity of government. Fear of Faction:

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united states

Where is our Western Boundary?

What is our Southern Boundary?

How long had westward expansion been happening?

How is the new Constitution working?

United States
formation of political parties

GW was against alliances with other nations and political parties.

  • GW favored a unity of government.
  • Fear of Faction:
  • All citizens should support the President
    • No loyal opposition
Formation of Political Parties
hamilton v jefferson

Both served in Washington’s Cabinet.

  • GW usually sided with Hamilton.
  • Differences between these men helped to create political parties.
    • Federalists
    • Republicans
Hamilton v. Jefferson
hamilton v jefferson1

Jefferson = strict constructionist

Hamilton = Loose constructionist

Jefferson=Agrarian Society

Hamilton=Urban Society

Jefferson = Local Power

Hamilton = National Power

Jefferson = Pro-France

Hamilton = Pro-Great Britain

Hamilton v. Jefferson
constitutional change

12th amendment:

    • Two separate ballots in Electoral College of President and Vice- President.
    • Enumerated or Implied?
    • Why is this change necessary?
Constitutional Change
electoral college

A group of person’s from each state who directly vote for the President.

State legislature can choose them or the people can choose them.

Electoral College
the age of jackson

1800 – 5.3 million

1850 – 23 million

Rural Society – 98% farmers

Few roads

Government very small, inactive.

The Age of Jackson
louisiana purchase 1803

Why do we need it?

  • From France for $15 million
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Constitutional Questions
    • Strict constructionist
  • More than doubled the size of US
Louisiana Purchase 1803
life on the frontier


Rugged Individualism:

Labor Intensive:



Life on the Frontier
republican virtues

Virtues needed to live in the new republic that had just been created. These virtues were to be taught in schools in addition to academic subjects.

Consensus nationally (Rousseau)

Republican Virtues
republican virtues1





Sacrifice: Group over individual (where do your rights end)

Republican Virtues
the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution
  • A watershed in world history.
    • A dividing point in history, things were completely different before the event than after the event.
    • Important Event.
the industrial revolution1
The Industrial Revolution
  • Began in England.
  • Due to Urbanization.
  • Resources available (coal)
  • Large Labor supply.
  • Large amount of Capital.
why it is a watershed
Why it is a watershed:
  • Home System to Factory System
  • Sources of power and fuel change:
    • Sails to steam & human/animal to steam.
change in power fuel
Change in Power/fuel
  • Steam power is invented.
  • Move from human and animal power to steam.
  • Allows for technology to advance at a rapid rate.
systems of production
Systems of Production
  • Home System:
    • Work done in people’s homes.
    • Paid for what they produce.
    • Quality is poor.
    • Production is slow
    • Products are not uniform
systems of production1
Systems of Production
  • Factory System:
    • Work at a central place.
    • People paid for their time.
    • Quality is high
    • Production is fast.
    • Product is uniform
impact of the industrial rev
Impact of the Industrial Rev.
  • Interchangeable Parts:
  • Mass Production:
  • Technology changes rapidly:
  • 1795 Steam Shovel Robert Fulton
  • 1798 Eli Whitney interchangeable Parts for muskets
  • 1807 Steamboat Robert Fulton
  • 1826 Internal combustion engine
missouri compromise of 1820

Designed to maintain a balance between slave and free states

Established the 36degree 30’N line for future admission of slave and free states

Temporary solution

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Regional differences

North and South have very different economies.



party politics
Party Politics
  • Andrew Jackson creates a new political party as a result of the election of 1824.
  • Machine Politics are born.
election of 1824
Election of 1824
  • John Q Adams, John C. Calhoun, William Crawford, Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay are all Republican candidates for President.
  • Jackson has the most popular votes, but not enough electoral votes.
election of 18241
Election of 1824
  • Election goes to the House of Representative.
  • Henry Clay gives his support to Adams who wins in the House.
  • Jackson is angry and starts preparing for 1828.
political machine
Political Machine
  • A tightly run organization with a successful record of winning public office.
  • Martin Van Buren and Jackson create the Democratic Party.
democratic party
Democratic Party
  • Jackson created excitement, and became a leader of the common man.
  • Elected President in 1828
  • (179-83)
jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Spoils System:
  • “To the victor goes the spoils.
  • Made this policy official and justified it by saying any competent man could do the job required.
jacksonian democracy1
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Wanted a small and inactive federal government.
  • Vetoed more proposed laws than the six presidents before him combined.
  • An active President was uncommon.
jacksonian democracy2
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Nullification: Right of a state to make a federal law void.
  • South Carolina proposed this regarding the Tariff of 1828.
  • Jackson threatened federal troops would be sent in to collect the tariff.
jacksonian democracy3
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Nullification was the center of the debate about who has Supreme Power the states or the Federal Government.
  • Supremacy Clause:
  • John C Calhoun resigned as VP.
  • This is the first sign of a lack of national unity that would lead to the Civil War.
jacksonian democracy4
Jacksonian Democracy
  • He appoints a cabinet that he could dominate rather than appoint men with expertise he would have to listen to.
indian removal act of 1830
Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • Jackson became nationally famous as an Indian fighter.
  • Wanted to open the land up to economic development.
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830 declared unconstitutional.
indian removal act of 18301
Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • Jackson enforced the law anyway.
  • Resulted in the Trail of Tears.
  • “John Marshall made his decision now let’s see him enforce it.”
jackson and the bank of the us
Jackson and the Bank of the US
  • Bank of the United States
    • Collected taxes
    • Depository for US Funds
    • Controlled issuances of paper money.
    • Made loans to US government.
jackson and the bank of the us1
Jackson and the Bank of the US
  • Ran by private citizens, carrying out functions of the Govt.
  • Great deal of authority but not accountable to anyone.
  • Jackson vetoed the re-charter of the bank.
manifest destiny
Manifest Destiny
  • John O’Sullivan 1845
  • God given right to over spread North America.
  • Indians were not considered people.
manifest destiny1
Manifest Destiny
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris (MR)
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase
  • 1819 Florida
  • 1845 Texas Annexation
  • 1848 Mexican War
  • 1853 Gadsden Purchase
manifest destiny2
Manifest Destiny
  • Impacts:
    • Resources
    • Isolated from enemies
    • Confidence
manifest destiny3
Manifest Destiny
  • US Imperialism
    • Indians suffered
    • Fight a war with Mexico
    • Constitutional Questions (TJ)
    • Ethnocentrism
lone star republic

1835 Texas revolts

Wins Independence from Mexico

Sam Houston becomes first President.

1845 Texas applies for statehood

Border dispute brought with it

Lone Star Republic
war with mexico
War with Mexico
  • 1846-1848
  • Texas admitted as 28th state.
  • Boundary between US and Mexico disputed.
  • US wants to gain land.
james k polk

Favors US Expansion

Favored war with Mexico

James K Polk
impact of the war
Impact of the War
  • US control is extended west.
  • US forces gain experience they will use in the Civil War.
  • US unchallenged in NA.
treaty of guadalupe hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • US gets
    • California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Wyoming.
    • US pays $15 million to Mexico.
line in the sand

The exact origin of the phrase is unknown, but several events (though perhaps in legend only) have a reference to an actual line being drawn:

In the United States, the phrase is most commonly associated with Texas history surrounding the Battle of the Alamo, as it is attributed to Colonel William Travis, commander of the Alamo defense forces.[1] In the waning days of the Battle (somewhere between March 3–5, 1836), with Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna having the Alamo completely surrounded, Santa Anna sent a messenger to Travis demanding surrender, or else everyone in the compound would be killed. According to the legend, Travis called the Alamo defenders together, explained that defeat was almost certain, and read the letter of surrender; Travis then (having chosen to die instead of surrender) reportedly pulled his battle sword, drew a line in the sand of the Alamo, and asked for volunteers to cross over the line and join him, understanding their decision would be irreversible. The legend states that all but one of the defenders (including Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett) joined Travis on his side of the line; Moses Rose being the only holdout. Travis then responded to Santa Anna's letter with cannon fire, whereupon Santa Anna replied by playing El Degüello.

Line in the Sand