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The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia. Sui-Tang-Song China. 220-589 (Post Han-Sui) A time of political division, economic turmoil, and social conflict. Regional Kingdoms:. Chinese Regionalism. “Era of Division” 220-589 C.E. Nomadic Invasions Endless wars amongst rival kingdoms

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The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia

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  1. The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia Sui-Tang-Song China

  2. 220-589 (Post Han-Sui) A time of political division, economic turmoil, and social conflict. Regional Kingdoms: Chinese Regionalism

  3. “Era of Division” 220-589 C.E. • Nomadic Invasions • Endless wars amongst rival kingdoms • Re-emergence of rule by aristocrats • Decline of Bureaucracy • Decline of Confucianism • Rise of Buddhism • Economic decline • Great Wall divided • Technological stagnation • …it was bad.

  4. China’s turbulent 4th century • Conquest and rule my non-Chinese peoples (Barbarians) shocked the Chinese. • Huns and Xiongnu eroded the frontier defenses.

  5. Confucianism in the Regional Era • Confucianism: stressed ideas and practices that promoted social etiquette, family values, and political stability. • These ideas were criticized for their failure and their value during the regional era. • Regional monarchs began to “re-embrace” the value system, while scholars often condemned its shortcomings.

  6. Founded by Yang Jian Valued Chin style leadership with tight political control. General who consolidated his position and usurped power. Used propaganda! Conquered southern China in a Naval War Re-emergence of Empire: Sui Dynasty

  7. Yang Jian • Devoted to building a powerful government • Consolidated rule in China • Excellent judge of talented people • Empire builder • Extraordinary temper • Paranoia • Built an elaborate bureaucracy • “thrifty” • Devout Buddhist, supported Confucianism as a political ideology

  8. Return to Chin ways • Harsh, codified laws • Standardized everything • Written test for office holders • Beginnings of civil service exam • Refusal to serve in areas of birth • “eyes and ears of the ruler” • Elaborate building projects such as the capital Changan

  9. Changan during the Sui

  10. “political intrigue” Great achievement: the Grand Canal Purpose Emperor Yangdi and the Grand Canal

  11. Founded by Li Yuan China’s Greatest Dynasty? Golden Age? “Qin-Han, Sui-Tang” The Tang Dynasty

  12. Ambitious, Ruthless, arguably China’s greatest emperor. Believed in a Confucian, Chin, yet benevolent state.’ Stable, peaceful, prosperous… Tang Taizong

  13. Reasons for Tang Success? • 1. Well articulated roads and communication networks. (Canals) • 2. Equal field distribution system of land sharing • 3. Reliance on a very highly skilled bureaucracy governed by a civil service exam.

  14. Civil Service Exam

  15. Brought Manchuria, the Silla Kingdom of Korea, Vietnam, and as far west as the Aral Sea (Russia) under their control. Tang Conquest

  16. Incapable emperors Dynastic wars (Du Fu) An Lushan Rebellion Talas River Battle of 751 Loss of Silk Roads Transfer of Power to Islam Buddhist Crisis of the mid 9th Century. Tang Decline

  17. Transition • The Late Tang period saw individual armies loyal to their warlords dominating Chinese life. • Period between the Tang and Song Age saw a return to regionalism. With non-Chinese peoples ruling North China. • 907-960 China was dominated by Political Fragmentation and Rivalry.

  18. Song contradiction Early political stability: 960-1127 Effective monarchs Civil Bureaucracy Founded by Zhao Guangyin Drunken generals story The Song Dynasty

  19. Song Shortcomings and Decline • Military weakness • Economic costs of Bureaucracy • Taxation issues • Peasant woes • Rise of nomads-The Khitan, Jurchen, and the Mongols

  20. Song split

  21. Song Demise • 1215: lost control to Jin Dynasty • Reverted to control Southern China • 1279 Southern Song crushed by Mongols.

  22. Tang/Song Culture • Neo-Confucianism • Wang Anshi: political and economic innovations • Metaphysical (being) school of Zu Xi • Good v. Evil: Confucian study and Buddhist meditation can treat evil. • His work will be studied and admired for a millenium.

  23. Tang/Song Economics • “Champa” Rice: • Porcelain • Metallurgy • Paper production • “Flying Cash” • Urbanization

  24. Japanese Characteristics • Geography? • Comparison with Greece? • Warrior Aristorcarcy • Rigid society • 5% of the population was slave • Hundreds of early political units • Clan based society governed by warrior chieftans • Early socieity: Yamato Clan • Religious beliefs: Shinto-the Way of the Gods

  25. Japan • Early Buddhism • Deficits of Shinto faith • Diffusion of things Chinese • Seventeen Article Constitution-Buddhist and Confucian document • Taika Reforms-attempt to recreate a Confucian style system in Japan (Exam, Bureaucracy)

  26. Nara Japan (710-794 C.E.) • The earliest inhabitants of Japan were nomadic peoples from northeast Asia • Ruled by several dozen states by the middle of the first millennium C.E. • Inspired by the Tang example, one clan claimed imperial authority over others • Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C.E., modeled on Chang'an • Adopted Confucianism and Buddhism, but maintained their Shinto rites

  27. Heian Japan (794-1185 C.E.) Moved to new capital, Heian (modern Kyoto), in 794 Japanese emperors as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family Emperor did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought Buddhism exploded during this time, despite a strong reaction against it. Heian Japan

  28. Heian Decline • Feuds amongst the great families • Local ambitions and political division • War between the Taira and Minamoto clans • Rise of Samurai class • Rise of Yorimotoa Minamoto as Shogun (Kamakura Shogunate)

  29. Began to make their mark in literature. Murasaki Shikibu-a female courtess during the Heian Age wrote the Tale of Genji. A story of court life and personality of Japanese during the age. First novel in human history Japanese Cultural Achievements

  30. Decline of Heian Japan • The equal-field system began to fail • Aristocratic clans accumulated most land • Taira and Minamoto, the two most powerful clans, engaged in wars • Clan leader of Minamoto claimed title shogun, military governor; ruled in Kamakura

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