THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EAST ASIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EAST ASIA
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THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EAST ASIA

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  1. THE SPREAD OF CIVILIZATION IN EAST ASIA JAPAN, KOREA AND VIETNAM IN THE POST-CLASSICAL AGE

  2. GEOGRAPHY INFLUENCES HISTORY • Relative Location • Korea, Vietnam border China • Japan located off coast of East Asia • Physical Characteristics • Korea, Vietnam • Mountainous, cut by river valleys • Population located on plains • Japan • Volcanic islands, very mountainous • Deep valleys with plains • Demography • Populace generally heavy on plains • Rice was principal crop • Cities exist but rarer than China • Cities: centers of Chinese culture • Countryside: resistant to Sinification

  3. THE CONFUCIAN WORLD

  4. KOREA: THE BRIDGE • Korea in the Ancient and Classical Periods • Influenced by developments in China • Chinese armies invaded periodically • Chinese established control of parts of Korea • Nomadic invasions frequent • Fall of Han left regional Korean aristocrats in control • Korean History 669 – 1392 C.E. • Tang armies conquered much of Korea • Silla dynasty allied with Tang, ruled peninsula • Entered into a tributary relationship with China • Song replaced Tang • Koguryo conquered Silla in 935, ruled to 1392 • China's influence in Korea • Sinification = becoming Chinese • Koreans borrowed what was useful, unavoidable; avoided what was not • Tributary embassies included Korean royal officials and scholars • Silla kings built new capital at Kumsong modeled on the Tang capital • Older Traditions • Ancestor worship strong in Korean society • Korean officials trained in Confucian ideas during Han, Tang but not as strong • Newer Traditions • Korean elite turned to Neo-Confucianism • Peasants turned to Chan Buddhism • Difference from China: aristocracy and royal houses dominated Korea

  5. VIETNAM: A BORDER STATE • Nam Viet people originated in Southern China • Rise of Han and southern settlement of Chinese pushed Viet out • Viet migrated into Red River Valley, down coast fighting local inhabitants • Vietnam under Chinese rule to c. 983 CE • Han first conquered Northern Vietnam in 111 BCE • Viet elites adopted Chinese agriculture, schools, thought; intermarried • Massive migration of Chinese official, scholars, bureaucrats to Vietnam • Trung sisters led revolt against Chinese rule (40 – 43 CE) • Peasants resented Chinese influence, role of towns, cities • 1,000 year struggle for independence • Relationship often tributary to China • Independent Vietnam (c. 983 CE) • Ruled by Dynasties, capital moved between Hanoi, Hue • Constant pressure against hill peoples, pushing south • Difference from China • Role of village equal to role of family in China • Few cities; village dominate countryside, elders ran villages • Many Vietnamese retained their religious traditions • Women played more prominent roles in Vietnam • Could be head of households, own land, engage openly in business • Were often leaders of villages and even at national level • Chinese influence in Vietnam limited to the elite • Elites adopted bureaucracy, form of state, emperorship, Confucianism • Adopted Chinese script, literary and artistic models • Mahayana Buddhism (although region is Theravada) also arrived • Irrigation and water control techniques

  6. EARLY JAPAN • Ancient Japan • Earliest inhabitants were nomadic Caucasians (Ainu) from Northeast Asia • Japanese related to Koreans, migrated into islands, pushed Ainu north • Ruled by several dozen states dominate by clans, 1st millennium BCE • Shinto: Ancestor veneration with deification of nature, spirits (kami) • Nara Japan (710-794 C.E.) • Inspired by Tang, Yamato clan claimed imperial authority • The imperial court modeled on that of the Tang • Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C.E., modeled on Chang'an • Prince Shotoku wrote first Japanese constitution • Adopted Confucianism and Buddhism, but maintained Shinto • Heian Japan (794-1185 C.E.) • Moved to new capital Heian (modern Kyoto) in 794 • Japanese emperors as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority • Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family • Emperor did not rule • Lived in splendid isolation along with court elite • Effected by bureaucrats, complex etiquette • Chinese learning dominated Japanese education, culture • The Tale of Genji • Women contributed most to Japanese literature and writing • Decline of Heian Japan • Equal-field system began to fail • Aristocratic clans accumulated lands • Rivalry between court nobility and landed aristocracy • Taira and Minamoto, the two most powerful clans, engaged in wars • The clan leader of the victorious Minamoto claimed the title of shogun

  7. MEDIEVAL JAPAN • Japanese feudalism • Called the Shogunate Period • Military dictators ruled, Emperors reigned in splendid isolation • Government was centralized feudalism • Countryside divided up into fiefs • Daimyo appointed by the shoguns • Adopted Neo-Confucianism as state philosophy • Provincial lords controlled Japan • Called Daimyo, vied for power against each other • Constant war to increase personal power, wealth, fiefs • Kamakura Period (1185-1333 C.E.) • Muromachi Period (1336-1573 C.E.) • The Samurai • The lowest class of aristocratic nobility • Professional warriors of provincial lords • Observed samurai code called bushido • Valued loyalty, military talent, and discipline; traded military skills for food • To preserve their honor, engaged in ritual suicide called seppuku • Japanese Women • Legendary founder of Japan, Yamato clan was sun goddess, Amaterasu • Under Heian • They were the cultural elite with elaborate rituals including dress • Had great influence, including several empresses • Under Shogunate • Lost considerable influence as Neo-Confucianism introduced, warfare spread • Could still be samurai and fight but patriarchal society • Shinto was also male dominated and included ancestor worship

  8. FIEFS OF FEUDAL JAPAN