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NUTRITION: WHAT WE ALL SHOULD KNOW Dr. Richard Sheerin B.S. Nutritional Science – Cornell University Doctor of Chiropractic – Texas Chiropractic College
Dairy Meat/Fish Fruits/Vegetables Grains/Cereals
“New” Paradigm • Macronutrients • Carbohydrates • Protein • Lipids (Fats/Oils) • Micronutrients • Vitamins • Minerals • Enzymes • Water
Carbohydrates (CHO) • Cereals/Grains • Breads • Pasta • Fruits/Vegetables • Sugars • Monosaccharides • Glucose, Fructose, Galactose • Disaccharides • Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose • Polysaccharides • Large chains of monosaccharides
Protein • Amino acids joined together in chains • Animal Sources • Fish, Chicken, Lean Pork, Eggs, Beef • Plant Sources • Nuts • Seeds • Legumes • Soy • Tempeh • Seitan
Lipids • Fats (solid at room temperature) • Oils (liquid at room temperature) Fats and oils are made of Triglycerides
Fatty Acids • Those fatty acids with no carbon-carbon double bonds are called saturated. Those that have two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated. Monounsaturated have one double bond. • Unsaturated fats have a particular geometry that prevents the molecules from packing as efficiently as they do in saturated molecules. Thus they are EASIER to breakdown for energy and HARDER to store as fat.
Fatty Acids (cont.) • Saturated fats are typically solids and are derived from animals, while unsaturated fats are liquids and usually extracted from plants. • Your body converts any calories it doesn't need to use right away into triglycerides. The triglycerides are stored in your fat cells. Later, hormones release triglycerides for energy between meals.
Vitamins • A, D, E and K • Fat soluble vitamins • Inadequate dietary fat intake can result in deficiencies of these vitamins • Vitamin D is vital (more later) • B6, B12, Thiamine, Riboflavin, C, Folate, Niacin • Huge roles in CHO metabolism and other essential body functions
Enzymes • Essential for ALL chemical reactions in the body. Function by lowering the energy needed for chemical reaction and speeding up the reaction. • In short, Enzymes help the body perform the billions of chemical reactions it does each day EASIER (with less energy cost)
Food Preparation: Commercial and Domestic • Fats and Proteins (MACRO) as well as Vitamins and Enzymes (MICRO) are VERYsensitive to HEAT. • Pasteurization • No real control • Leaves higher % of carbs per unit volume • Cooking • Much more control
Water • ALL CHEMICAL REACTIONS in the body need to take place in or use water • CHO, Proteins and Fats all require huge amounts of water to break down • Death occurs in 5-7 days without water
MACRONUTRIENTS + MICRONUTRIENTS + WATER CELLULAR ENERGY (ATP)
Digestion and Assimilation • Digestion • The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into progressively smaller and smaller pieces • Can be an issue with poor dental health, ulcers, esophageal disorders, etc. • Assimilation • The utilization (absorption into the bloodstream) of the nutrients in those small pieces for energy, growth and repair • Poor “gut” health is very common in the US
Carbohydrate Digestion and Assimilation • Begins in the mouth via our saliva, with help from an enzyme - salivary amylase • This only occurs with CHO – WHY? • The brain can only use CHO as an energy source • The brain “steals” up to 40% of CHO intake before the rest of the body gets a shot at them
Carbohydrate Digestion and Assimilation (cont.) • Digestive enzymes released by the pancreas into the small intestine (in response to eating carbohydrates) allows the absorption of carbs throughout the small intestine, but when eating refined sugars, the absorption occurs in the first part of the small intestine only (it happens too fast)– increasing the chances they’ll be stored as fat tissue.
Protein Digestion and Assimilation • Begins in the stomach. Ingested proteins are first split into smaller fragments by pepsin (enzyme) in the stomach or by trypsin or chymotrypsin (enzymes) from the pancreas. These proteins are then further broken down in the small intestine (middle 1/3) one amino acid at a time. The free amino acids released into the digestive system are then absorbed through the walls of the 2nd and 3rd parts of the small intestine into the blood stream where they are then resynthesized into new tissue proteins (muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc.) or are broken down for energy or for fragments for further tissue building.
Protein Digestion and Assimilation BOTTOM LINE: The process of breaking down and using protein requires: • Lots of water • Lots of time • A healthy gut and pancreas to produce proper enzymes
Lipid Digestion and Assimilation • Very unique process. Just putting fat into your mouth triggers the release of salivary lipase – an enzyme that signals the brain and body that fat is coming. • This is due to the high energy value of fats • CHO = 4 calories/gram • Protein = 4 calories/gram • Fats = 9 calories/gram
Lipid Digestion and Assimilation • Fat digestion doesn’t begin until the first part of the small intestine when the liver/gall bladder release bile salts that emulsify or breakdown fat into smaller and smaller pieces. These smaller pieces can then be dissolved into triglycerides by enzymes released from the pancreas (pancreatic lipase). THIS PROCESS REQUIRES A LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER OR IT WILL NOT TAKE PLACE PROPERLY.
Why Do We Need to Know This? • The body’s cells energy/nutrient needs are diverse at different times • Giving the body only one Macronutrient at a time “feeds” some cells while it “starves” others • In an effort to “get to the next Macro” which is needed, the body increases the speed at which the food moves through the GI tract • Fast digestion results in poor assimilation
Why Do We Need to Know This? • Fast digestion results in sharp rise in blood sugar • As a result, Insulin levels rise quickly to high levels • When insulin levels are high the body goes into “storage mode” – you store calories present as fat rather than using them as energy
Macronutrient Eating By combining all 3 Macronutrients at EVERY meal and snack the following can occur: • Increased food mixing with water • leads to greater amount of successful chemical reactions • Slower progression of food through the GI tract • ensures the body has enough time to breakdown these foods and extract every last bit of nutrition from them
Greater stretching of the GI tract • “Fuller” longer – less prone to overeat • Increases ease of nutrient assimilation • Reduced colorectal cancer risk • Stabilizes blood sugar and insulin levels • Less fat storage • Improves utilization of both CHO and Fats • Allows us to access these nutrients for longer periods of time (when they are needed during the day).
Some Important Concepts We Should All Be Aware Of • Glycemic Index of Foods • Types of Dietary Fats and Their Effect on Cholesterols • Vitamin D
Glycemic Index (GI) • Refers to how quickly blood sugar levels rise in response to eating a particular food • Scale of 0-100 with pure glucose at the top of the list • Eating foods lower (below 50) on the GI prevents spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels • Combing fat and protein with carbs has same effect
Understanding Cholesterol • Cholesterol is ESSENTIAL • Backbone of ALL Hormones in the body • Cell membrane integrity • Cellular communication • 2 main types • Exogenous – dietary (what we eat) • Endogenous – what our body produces • Lots of bad information out there
Understanding Cholesterol LDL vs. HDL • LDL – Low Density Lipoprotein • A molecule made of fat and protein • Fat is less dense than protein • Large molecules that can “clog up” blood vessels • Function to deliver fats to our cells • Too many can be detrimental • HDL – High-density Lipoprotein • More protein than fat • Smaller molecules • Remove unused fat from blood and brings it back to the liver
Understanding Cholesterol • Total Cholesterol # can be unimportant if there are 2 or less risk factors for CVD present • Diabetes • Obesity • Smoking • Family history of CVD • Alcohol consumption • Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio is the key factor in determining CVD risk • Optimal is 3.5 or below
Understanding Cholesterol • Exercise and consuming Mono-unsaturated (Omega-3) fats INCREASE HDL levels • Consuming saturated (Omega-9) and poly-unsaturated (Omega-6) fats can INCREASE LDL levels
Vitamin D • Recent research has shown that Vitamin D’s importance goes well beyond teeth and bones • “Usher” of fats and Carbs from blood into cells • Too few ushers = increased levels of fat and sugar in the blood • Elevated blood pressure • Increased risk of diabetes and many types of cardiovascular disease
Parting Thoughts • Food ain’t what it used to be • Farming practices • Food safety protocols • Synthetic ingredients • Macronutrient intake at every meal and snack • Maximizes the efficiency of your GI tract • Regulates insulin levels • Helps inhibit overeating
Thank you for your time. Be sure to write down any questions you may have, along with your email address, and I will answer them to the best of my ability.