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2010 CACFP Summer Training Feeding Kids in the CACFP. Nutrition and Meal Planning. General Information. Restrooms Breaks Silence your cell phones Ask questions Limit personal conversations Prizes. FY 2011 Consultant Region Map. Agenda. Nutrition and Meal Planning

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general information
General Information
  • Restrooms
  • Breaks
  • Silence your cell phones
  • Ask questions
  • Limit personal conversations
  • Prizes
  • Nutrition and Meal Planning
  • Serving Sizes vs. Portion Sizes
  • CN Labels
  • Crediting Foods
  • Food Safety and Sanitation
health of wisconsin s children
Health of Wisconsin’s Children

24% high school students are overweight or obese

19% of 8-9 year olds are overweight or obese

29.9% of children ages 2-4 are overweight or obese


Nutrition and Meal Planning Topics

  • What is Nutrition?
  • Family Style Dining
  • Menu: Quality and Variety
  • Menu: Recipe Modifications
  • Stretching Your Food Dollar
what is nutrition9
What is Nutrition?
  • The role of food in the maintenance of good health
  • Food at work in the body
  • Proper nutrition can prevent overweight and obesity, and medical problems associated with overweight and obesity
  • Good nutrition helps children grow to their full potential
  • Nutrition is a BALANCE of carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water
  • UNBALANCED nutrition can lead to obesity

and other adverse health effects



  • Supply energy in the form of glucose
    • Body’s most important and readily available energy source
    • Brain’s preferred energy source
  • Children need carbohydrates for energy and help with growth and development
  • Sources of carbohydrates
    • Grains (preferably whole grains)
    • Fruits and Vegetables
    • Milk
  • Simple sugars are also carbohydrates
    • Cakes, cookies, sugary cereals, doughnuts, candy
    • These items are high in calories and low in valuable nutrients
    • Too much of these are linked to obesity
  • Limit foods that contain simple sugars
  • Excess simple sugar consumption may result in storing it in your body as fat (UNBALANCED)
  • Fiber
    • Non-digestible carbohydrate
    • Filling and therefore discourages overeating
    • Best sources are whole grain breads & cereals
  • Whole Grains
    • Contain fiber, B vitamins, iron, magnesium
    • It is recommended that whole grain products are served a minimum 3 times per week
    • (White flour is made from the endosperm)
  • Building new tissues, forming new cells, cell repair and oxygen transport
  • Body can also use as a source of energy
  • Sources of protein:
    • Meat
    • Dairy products
    • Legumes
    • Peanut butter
  • Protects vital organs in the body
  • Develop brain structure and nerve tissue
    • Very important for infants and toddlers up to age 2
  • Production of hormones and maintaining skin
  • Aids in absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
  • Children need fat for normal body development
  • Excess fat in a diet can lead to weight gain (UNBALANCED)
  • Help your body use carbohydrates, proteins and fats
  • Promote growth, cell reproduction and health
  • Support immune system
  • Two types
    • Fat-Soluble
    • Water-Soluble



  • A, D, E, and K
  • Stored in the body (fat cells)
  • Children’s diets are often low in vitamin A
    • Serve foods high in vitamin A 2-3 times/week
    • Handout
  • C and the B vitamins
  • Need to be consumed daily because they are not stored in the body
    • Handout
  • Calcium, potassium, magnesium and iron
  • Needed for growth of teeth and bones, muscle contraction, nerve reaction, blood clotting
  • Iron
    • Needed to make hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying component of red blood cells (RBC). Without iron, the body cannot make RBC and cannot get oxygen to tissues and organs
      • This leads to learning and behavior problems and iron deficiency anemia
  • Infants and children especially need iron because they are in a growing stage
    • It is a CACFP requirement that infants

consume iron-fortified cereal until age 1,

in addition to breast milk and/or

iron-fortified infant formula

  • Good sources of iron:
    • Meat, enriched grains, leafy green vegetables
    • TIP: Serve iron-rich foods with foods containing vitamin C (tomatoes, broccoli, oranges and strawberries) to improve the body’s absorption of iron
  • Carries nutrients and oxygen throughout body
  • Removes waste products
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Maintains blood volume
  • Children get busy playing and forget

to drink water so offer water to

children throughout the day

it is the responsibility of child care facility to provide nutritionally adequate healthful food
It Is The Responsibility of Child Care Facility to Provide Nutritionally Adequate Healthful Food


  • Preschool aged children consume 50-100% of their recommended daily allowance (RDA) in a child care setting
  • In an eating environment, young

children are influenced by adults


It Is The Responsibility of Child Care Facility to Provide Nutritionally Adequate Healthful Food

What do you need to do?

  • Serve a variety of meals packed with nutrients
    • Caregivers decide what foods to serve, children decide what they want to eat and how much
    • Only the child knows how hungry they are or if they like a particular food
      • Remember: Children often need to experience a food 15-20 times before they can decide if they like it or are reacting to unfamiliarity
      • Kids are slow to accept new tastes and textures
family style dining24
Family Style Dining…..
  • Small bowls on the table with utensils that children can handle.
  • Children serve themselves, teachers assist but do not serve children.
  • Teachers eat with the children and model expected behavior.
  • Children are encouraged, but not required, to try all the foods served.
i want to grow up healthy so please
I want to grow up healthy, so please……..
  • Provide Space – child-size tables and chairs
  • Provide practice with child-sized utensils
  • Provide foods that challenge eating skills
  • Encourage family style dining
benefits of family style dining what we learn by doing
Benefits of family style dining…. what we learn by doing
  • Eating is a sensory experience.
  • Eating can be a mathematical experience -setting the table, counting, eating a fraction of the whole.
  • Eating is a social experience, learning the give and take of conversation as well as please and thank you.
how to start family style dining s tart slowly
How to start family style dining…..start slowly
  • Slow down, meals are part of the curriculum.
  • Plan ahead for spills and utensils that may fall on the ground.
  • Start small by serving and passing one item of the meal.
  • Teachers assist with serving and passing,

initially, then allow children to complete

the task.

learn about food through experiences
Learn about food through experiences….

Using picture books to introduce a topic

Set up a pouring table during play time to practice pouring and scooping

Plan menus with children

Encourage cooking experiences

what about the picky eater
What about the picky eater?

The Division of Responsibility For Toddlers through Adolescents:

The parent (or child care provider) is responsible for what, when, where

The child is responsible for how much and whether

© 2009Ellyn Satter

parents or child care providers feeding jobs
Parents' or Child Care Providers’ Feeding Jobs:
  • Choose and prepare the food
  • Provide regular meals and snacks
  • Make eating times pleasant
  • Show children what they have to learn about food and mealtime behavior
  • Not let children graze for food or beverages between meal and snack times
  • Let children grow up to get bodies that are right for them

© 2009Ellyn Satter

division of responsibility
Division of Responsibility

Fundamental to parents’ (or child care provider’s) job is trusting children to decide how much and whether to eat. If parents do their jobs with feeding, children will do their jobs with eating:

  • Children will eat
  • They will eat the amount they need
  • They will learn to eat the food their parents (or caregivers) eat
  • They will grow predictably
  • They will learn to behave well at the table

© 2009Ellyn Satter

menus quality and variety
Menus:quality and variety

Nutrition and Menus:

What are you serving children in your center?


Menu quality

To prevent childhood obesity, serve:

  • MORE whole grains
  • MORE fruits and vegetables
  • LESS juice

Menu quality

MORE Whole grains

  • Whole grain bread has 14 more nutrients than white bread
  • Fiber – regulates blood sugar and keeps you feeling fuller longer

Menu quality

MORE Fruits and vegetables

  • Fruits and vegetables are filled with vitamins and other nutrients
  • Children ages 2-5 should be offered 1 - 1 ½ cups of vegetables and 1 - 1 ½ cups fruit each day
  • The amount of fruit and vegetables served at lunch is not enough to meet the daily amount

Menu quality

LESS Juice

  • Juice has fewer nutrients and more sugar than actual fruit
  • May cause tooth decay
  • Overconsumption may contribute to childhood obesity

Menu activity

  • More whole grains
  • More fruits and vegetables
  • Less juice
menu variety
Menu variety

Grocery Store Ad

  • Plums are $1.39/lb
  • Apples are $0.49/lb
menu variety39
Menu variety

Q: Are you tempted to buy a lot of one food when it on sale as long as it will meet the program requirements of the meal pattern?


Menu variety

Q: What happened to the quality/variety of the menu?

  • Very little variety
  • Some days you are only serving one fruit/vegetable (which makes the meal not creditable)
  • So what do you do?
    • What else is on sale at the store, costs less than $1.39/lb?
    • Maintain variety, do not compromise a well-planned menu
menus recipe modifications
Menus: Recipe modifications

Nutrition and Menus:

What are you serving children in your center?


Recipe Modifications

  • Reduce Fat
  • Reduce Sugar
  • Increase Fiber

Recipe Modifications

Reduce Fat

  • Serve 1% or skim milk rather than 2% (ages 2+)
    • Also less expensive than 2%/whole milk
    • Handout
test your milk iq
Test Your Milk IQ

True or False: All types of milk contain the same amount of

calcium, protein, vitamin D and other nutrients.

True or False: Whole milk has more saturated fat, cholesterol, and

calories which leads to heart disease and obesity

than low fat milk.

True or False: Low fat milk has all the nutrition that your

center needs. (Over the age of 2)

True or False: You can mix 2% with low fat milk to help your

center switch.

which milk is healthiest
Which Milk is Healthiest?

1% Low fat

Whole Milk

2% Reduced fat

Fat Free Skim

what s in your cup of milk
What’s in your cup of milk?

All types of milk have the same amount of calcium, protein, vitamin D and other nutrients.

The only difference is the amount of fat, cholesterol, and calories.

Low fat milk has all the nutrition that your family needs. (Over the age of 2)

why should my center switch to low fat milk
Because…saturated fatandcholesterol found in whole and 2% milkcan lead toheart diseaseWhy should my center switch to low fat milk?

Because…theextracaloriesfound in whole and 2% milk can lead tooverweightand obesity

who should drink whole milk
Who should drink whole milk?

Whole milk is recommended for children ages 1 to 2 for growth and brain development

how can i get my center family to switch to low fat milk
How can I get my center/family to switch to low fat milk?
  • Make the change gradually. Two year olds could receive 2% milk.
  • Talk to your children, staff and families about using low fat milk. Families should drink low fat milk at home too.
  • Mix low fat milk with whole or 2% reduced fat milk.
  • Start using low fat milk while cooking or preparing foods.

(For example, in oatmeal, soups, puddings, and cereal)

  • Just make the switch, the kids probably won’t even know the difference.
test your milk iq52
Test Your Milk IQ

True or False: All types of milk contain the same amount of

calcium, protein, vitamin D and other nutrients.

True or False: Whole milk has more saturated fat, cholesterol, and

calories which leads to heart disease and obesity

than low fat milk.

True or False: Low fat milk has all the nutrition that your

center needs. (Over the age of 2)

True or False: You can mix 2% with low fat milk to help your

center switch.

all statements are true
All Statements are True!
  • True! All milk types are equal when it comes to

nutrition. The only difference is the amount of fat.

  • True! Whole milk has more saturated fat, cholesterol, and

calories than low fat milk which can lead to heart

disease and obesity.

  • True! Low fat or fat free milk is the best choice for your

family and children’s health. (Over the age of 2)

  • True! You can mix a higher fat milk with a low fat or

fat free milk to help your center make the switch.


Recipe Modifications

Reduce Fat

  • Meat
    • Replace hotdogs, bologna and other processed meat with lean meat, poultry or fish
      • Refrain from serving combination food items like corndogs & chicken nuggets – make items from scratch instead
    • Choose ground meat that is at least 80% lean (less than 20% fat)
    • Remove skin from poultry and trim fat, serve chicken breasts

Recipe Modifications

Reduce Fat

  • Bake, broil or roast meat rather than fry
  • Substitute 2 egg whites for each whole egg
  • Substitute applesauce for ½ butter or margarine in recipe for cookies, cakes and muffins
  • Use spices, herbs and lemon juice on vegetables (instead of butter)

Recipe Modifications

Reduce Sugar

  • Use 1/3 less sugar in recipes for cookies, muffins, etc.
  • Serve fruit/vegetable for snack instead of cookies, other high-sugar snacks
  • Limit the use of jams and jellies (they often have added sugar and are not creditable anyways) – serve a whole fruit with breakfast instead

Recipe Modifications

Increase Fiber

  • Serve raw vegetables for snack – broccoli, cauliflower, carrots and celery
  • Serve oatmeal for breakfast
  • Use oatmeal as an extender in meatloaf or meatballs rather than bread crumbs
  • Serve beans as a meat option - kidney, pinto, black
the grocery store
The Grocery Store

Purchase items on your menu

  • Organize grocery list according to store layout & group foods. This saves you time, keeps you from forgetting items, and reduces temptation to buy foods not on the list

Stock up on non-perishable food items when on sale

  • Items you regularly serve to children
  • The only time you should go off shopping list
the grocery store60
The Grocery Store

Check unit pricing for cost comparisons

  • Similar foods may be packaged in different-size containers making it hard to compare prices
  • Divide prices by weight or volume of contents
  • Many stores now include unit pricing on prices listed on shelves
the grocery store61
The Grocery Store

Do not purchase convenience foods

  • They cost more!!!
  • You are paying for the packaging and someone else to do the work.
  • Make the same foods from scratch – they may also contain less fat, sugar and salt
  • Carrots, apples and bananas cost the same as a large bag of chips or box of cookies

Store brands are less expensive than brand name

  • Many store brands are made by same processor as national brands
shopping tips by food group
Shopping Tips by Food Group

Meat/Meat Alternate

  • Eggs are inexpensive and make good main dishes
  • Light tuna is one of the least expensive kinds of canned fish
  • Buy yogurt in larger containers rather than single servings
  • Shredded cheese is more expensive than buying it in block form and shredding yourself
shopping tips by food group63
Shopping Tips by Food Group

Fruit and Vegetables

  • Buy fresh produce in season
  • Buy frozen when fresh F/V’s are out of season and cost too much
  • Buy whole produce and process yourself
    • Baby carrots cost $1.13 more for 10 oz than large carrots you cut yourself
    • Washed and cut apple slices cost $0.75 more per apple than a whole apple
shopping tips by food group64
Shopping Tips by Food Group

Fruit and Vegetables

  • Ethylene Gas
    • Ripening agent that occurs naturally in nature (natural plant hormone)
    • Some fruits and vegetables are major ethylene gas producers while others are very sensitive to ethylene gas and can become damaged quickly
    • Store fruits and vegetables that produce ethylene gas separate from fruits and vegetables that are sensitive to make your food last longer
shopping tips by food group67
Shopping Tips by Food Group


  • Buy generic/store brand unsweetened cereals
  • Skip quick-cooking varieties of rice and oatmeal, they cost more than regular cook varieties
  • Rice mixes cost more than flavoring your own
  • Fancy pasta shapes cost more than spaghetti and macaroni
vegetarian options
Vegetarian Options
  • Consider vegetarian dishes to help save money OR substitute beans for half of meat
  • Main dishes and snacks can include
    • Eggs, beans, cheese, yogurt, beans, nuts and seeds
      • Nuts/seeds can only meet ½ of total m/ma serving and must be combined with another m/ma to fulfill the lunch/supper requirement
recipes and home made items
Recipes and Home Made Items

Cost less and have less fat, sugar and sodium

When you make home made items, list all ingredients individually on production record so it is evident what items and in what amounts are being served to children

  • Example: “Casserole” is not specific
cycle menus production records
Cycle Menus & Production Records
  • Save time planning menus
  • Purchasing becomes regular – becomes easier to project how much product needs to be purchased, shopping takes less time
  • Recipes become familiar and staff become more efficient in producing them
  • Become efficient with food preparation = less food waste and less $$$ waste
cycle menus production records71
Cycle Menus & Production Records
  • Production records help make accurate projections of how much food to purchase and prepare, eliminating costly over-buying or over-preparing
  • You are serving hamburgers for lunch to 30 kids ranging in ages from 1-5. You have 4-oz hamburgers (cooked). Do you prepare and serve 30 hamburgers?
cycle menus production records72
Cycle Menus & Production Records
  • If you do you will probably have a lot of waste. Kids will not eat that much & you are not required to serve that much:
    • 1-2 year olds require 1 oz meat, 3-5 year olds require 1 ½ oz meat
cycle menus production records73
Cycle Menus & Production Records
  • Options
    • Serve ½ of the 4 oz burger to each child (2 oz) – you are still meeting the meal pattern requirement for each age group
    • Purchase patties that are less ounces per patty (i.e. 2.5 oz patties). Weight is smaller, not the size of the patty
    • You will save money here too
  • 5% of every dollar you spend is lost from employee theft (employees taking food home – watch access to storage areas and unlocked refrigerators/freezers)
  • Throwing out food because of spoilage
give aways
  • How much are employees eating?
    • You are allowed to serve teachers food prepared with CACFP funds, but you are not allowed to claim for these meals.
  • Leftovers
    • You cannot make extra food for employees to take home. This is not an allowable cost under the food program. Save $$ by only preparing amounts necessary to serve the children and program adults that meal/day.
    • Use leftovers as part of the meal the next day