Introduction • Memphis marathon = +
Nutrition and Energy Link • Energy is stored as ATP • ATP supply is limited • Constant ‘recycling’ of ATP Exercise
AEROBIC Walking Running Cycling Swimming ANAEROBIC Strength training Sprinting Throwing Jumping ENERGY SOURCES Creatine Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Fat Protein
PHOSPHOCREATINE • Phosphate – mineral • Creatine – amino acids • Stored inside muscle • 5-6 times more than ATP • Strength • 30 seconds
Glucose and Glycogen Anaerobic and Aerobic Preferred fuel of the brain Limited supply 2,000 calories 20 miles of running 2 hours of running CARBOHYDRATES
Fast twitch fibers Lactic acid Power 60 seconds 2 ATP CARBOHYDRATES
Slow twitch fibers Less lactic acid Greater than 2 minutes Depletion after 90 to 120 minutes Chronic depletion 36-38 ATP 5.0 calories per liter of oxygen Fatigue Hitting the wall Bonking CARBOHYDRATES
HIGH INDEX (>70) 98 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, Russet, Baked 97 . . . . . . . . . . Parsnips 87 . . . . . . . . . . Honey 89 . . . . . . . . . . Sport drinks 72 . . . . . . . . . . Bagel 70 . . . . . . . . . . Potato, White GLYCEMIC INDEX MEDIUM INDEX (56-69) 69 . . . . . . . . . . White Bread 66 . . . . . . . . . . Brown Rice 64 . . . . . . . . . . Raisins 64 . . . . . . . . . . Beets 62 . . . . . . . . . . Bananas 60 . . . . . . . . .Soft Drinks LOW INDEX (< 55) 34 . . . . . . . . . . Pears 29 . . . . . . . . . . Kidney Beans 26 . . . . . . . . . . Peaches 26 . . . . . . . . . . Grapefruit 25 . . . . . . . . . . Plums 23 . . . . . . . . . . Cherries 15 . . . . . . . . . . Soybeans
FATS • Relative large store • 70,000 kcal (12% body fat) • More energy per gram • Fat = 9 kcals/gram • Carbs = 4 kcals/gram • Glycogen sparing effect • Slower fuel • 2 to 6 times slow than glycogen oxidation • Requires more oxygen
5-10% energy during exercise Gluconeogenesis Glucose production Muscle repair PROTEIN
SUMMARY • Carbohydrates for energy • Protein for muscle repair and growth
CARBOHYDRATES Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates
PROTEIN • Protein is not a major source of energy • Active people need more protein than the RDA • However… • Most people already consume more than the RDA • Excess protein is stored as fat • High protein in the diet can cause dehydration and stress to the kidneys
PROTEIN • RDA (average sedentary) • = 0.4 grams per pound (8% total calories) • = 0.8 grams/kilogram • Resistance training • = up to 0.8 g per pound (15% total calories) • = 1.8 g per kg per day • Endurance training • = up to 0.6 g per pound (10% total calories) • = 1.4 g per kg per day
PROTEIN No Growth No Growth Muscle Hypertrophy Muscle Hypertrophy Muscle Atrophy Muscle Atrophy Peaks are ~ 2 hours apart.
PROTEIN • Protein should be consumed post-exercise to aid in muscle recovery and repair. • A small dose (0.1 g/kg) every 1-2 hours for 6 hours will promote a positive balance or anabolic state • Example: 170 lbs = 7.7 grams (~1 cup of milk) • Tuna, peanut butter, etc. • Adequate carbohydrate intake is needed to provided the energy for muscle repair and growth (4:1 ratio)
ANAEROBIC ENERGY SUMMARY • Carbohydrate: The Energy King • Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains • Protein: Building and Repair • Diet • 1.4 - 1.8 grams per kilogram • 0.6 – 0.8 grams per pound • Post-exercise • 0.1 g/kg every 1-2 hours post-exercise
CARBS CARBS FATS INTENSITY ~ 60% FATS ~ 2 hours DURATION CARBS v FATS
CARBOHYDRATES Energy • Muscles • Brain and Nerves Concerns • Hypoglycemia • Hitting the wall or “bonking”
CARBOHYDRATES Simple(sugars) Complex
CARBOHYDRATES • IS THERE ENOUGH CARBOHYDRATE? • Total of 600-1500 kcals • Grains: 6-11 SERVINGS = 450-600 kcals • Vegies: 3-5 SERVINGS = 70-500 kcals • Fruit: 2-4 SERVINGS = 80-400 kcals • Active people may need up to 2000 kcals of carbohydrate or more.
CARBOHYDRATES • Sedentary: 55-60% of total calories • Only 10 percent should be from sugar • Active: 60-70% of total calories • 3-5 grams per pound • ~600 grams (2,400 kcals) for 150 lb person • Note: 50 to 100 grams (200-400 kcals) per day to spare protein
CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE • CARBOHYDRATE LOADING • Increase carbohydrate intake to 70% • Taper workouts • Not necessary unless the activity will be longer than 90-120 minutes. • More beneficial in cyclists than runners • Water gain (3 grams H20 per gram of glycogen).
Depletion exercise (optional) Moderate carbs, taper (2-3 days) High carbs, taper or no exercise (2-3 days) Competition CARBOHYDRATE LOADING
CARBS: BEFORE EXERCISE EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR • 1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO • High glycemic index – greater insulin response • Low glycemic index to avoid hypoglycemia during exercise
CARBS: BEFORE EXECISE EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR 1- 4 hours before: high CHO meal 2 grams of carbohydrate per pound Limit fat and protein intake 1 hour before: 1g per pound of low glycemic CHO • Avoid hypoglycemia • Optional: 50-60 grams of LGI CHO immediately before • Liquid form e.g. sport drink
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE • EXERCISE LESS THAN 1 HOUR • High carbohydrate pre-exercise meals • High CHO snack (bagel, banana, etc.) about 1 hour before exercise
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE • DISCONTINUOUS EXERCISE • High-carbohydrate, pre-exercise meals improve exercise capacity. • Sports drinks during exercise. • May need to consume >100 calories per hour • Sports drinks during prolonged exercise helps delay the deterioration in motor skills.
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE • EXERCISE LONGER THAN 1 HOUR • Drink or eat every 15-30 minutes during exercise or breaks • 30-60 grams per hour • 120-240 kcals per hour • High glycemic index CHO • Liquid • 8 ounces sport drink = 56-72 calories) • Solid • Energy gels = 100 calories • Candy • Fruit
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE Power output (intensity level) with and without carbohydrates during exercise
CARBS: DURING EXERCISE EFFECT OF LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET ON PROTEIN
FATS DURING EXERCISE • Glycogen sparing
FAT BURNING SUPPLEMENTS • Caffeine • Chromium • Carnitine • Clenbuterol
CAFFEINE 1. Moderate doses of caffeine ingested 1 h prior to exercise enhance the performance of certain types of endurance exercise in the laboratory. 2. Caffeine ingestion increases plasma free-fatty acid concentrations and muscle triglyceride use and spares muscle glycogen. 3. Caffeine appears to enhance performance during short-term, intense cycling lasting ~5 min in the laboratory and in simulated 1500 m race time. 4. Potential mechanisms for improving performance during intense exercise lasting 5-20 min include direct effects of caffeine on the central nervous system and/or excitation-contraction coupling and increased anaerobic energy provision in skeletal muscle.
CHROMIUM • Chromium is an essential trace mineral. • It has an extremely low gastrointestinal absorption rate, so supplement manufacturers have bound chromium with picolinate (CrPic) to increase the absorption and bioavailability. • Chromium seems to function as a co-factor that enhances the action of insulin. • Promoters of CrPic claim it increases glycogen synthesis, improves glucose tolerance and lipid profiles, and increases amino acid incorporation in muscle.
CHROMIUM • Early researchers demonstrated anabolic-steroid-like effects with dosages of 200 mg/day. • More recent studies failed to demonstrate any significant improvement in percent body fat, lean body mass, or strength. • Most studies of CrPic supplementation reveal no side effects except gastrointestinal intolerance with dosages of 50 to 200 micrograms/day for less than 1 month. • The use of chromium picolinate supplementation as an ergogenic aid should be strongly discouraged.
CARNITINE • Carnitine: found in meats and dairy products and synthesized from lysine and methionine. • Theory: Increases free fatty acid transport across mitochondrial membranes, carnitine may increase fatty acid oxidation and utilization for energy. • Early studies showed an ergogenic effect.
CARNITINE • A more controlled study by Vuchovich et al failed to demonstrate any glycogen-sparing effect or reductions in lactate levels while supplementing with 6 g/day of L-carnitine. • Finally, many currently available supplements actually contain D-carnitine, which is physiologically inactive in humans but may cause significant muscle weakness through mechanisms that deplete L-carnitine in tissues. • Carnitine should not be advocated as an ergogenic supplement.
CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE • NEEDS • Replace glycogen in muscles and liver • Protein for muscle repair
CARBS: AFTER EXERCISE Competingwithandwithoutadequate carbohydrates during recovery
AFTER EXERCISE • CARBOHYDRATES & PROTEIN • A total of 50-100 grams of CHO and 10-20 grams of protein. • Repeated with a ~4:1 ratio of CHO & protein every 1-2 hours until next meal