Nutrition Basics. Mr. Bower Health & Physical Education. Teens and Nutrition. Good nutrition is essential during your teenage years Fastest period of growth Provides you with: Nutrients and Calories Calories - energy contained in food
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Nutrition Basics Mr. Bower Health & Physical Education
Teens and Nutrition • Good nutrition is essential during your teenage years • Fastest period of growth • Provides you with: • Nutrients and Calories • Calories- energy contained in food • Nutrients- substances in food that helps your body grow, repair itself and provides energy EAT FOOD
One plain bagel 1 cup of chocolate milk 1 slice of apple pie 1 cup cooked spaghetti 1 stalk of celery 1 can of regular coke 1 quarter-pound hamburger with cheese 1 pear 150 calories 180 calories 210 155 5 520 100 405 Calorie content ???
How did you do??? • 1 plain bagel – 180 • 1 cup of chocolate milk – 210 • 1 slice of apple pie – 405 • 1 cup cooked spaghetti – 155 • 1 stalk of celery – 5 • 1 can regular cola - 150 • 1 quarter-pound hamburger with cheese – 520 • 1 pear - 100
Teens and Nutrition Choices • Eating patterns now are likely to continue later in life • Developing good eating patterns can prevent: • Obesity • Diabetes • Strokes • Cancers • Osteoporosis • Heart Disease DON’T EAT ANYTHING YOUR GRANDMA WOULD NOT RECOGNIZE AS FOOD
6 Classes of Nutrients • Through Digestion, nutrients serve 3 functions: • Provide Energy (Macro nutrients) • Carbohydrates (1) • Proteins (2) • Fats (3) • Regulating Growth and Repair of Tissues • Proteins • Regulate Body Functions (Micro nutrients) • Vitamins (4) • Minerals (5) • Water (6) AVOID PROCDUCTS THAT NO ORDINARY HUMAN WOULD NOT KEEP IN THEIR PANTRY
6 Classes Of Nutrients Through digestion, Nutrients serve 3 functions:
Energy Providing Nutrients • Carbohydrates • 4 calories/gram • Proteins • 4 calories/gram • Fats • 9 calories/gram See what I have to say! AVOID PRODUCTS THAT CONTAIN HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP
Energy and Teens • The avg. person needs 2000 calories in their diet. • How many calories do you need? • Typically, teens require more calories (energy) because they are: • MORE ACTIVE • GROWING
Digestive System • Digestion • Process of breaking down large foods into smaller molecules of nutrients to be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body. • Catabolism • “Break Down” • http://www.umm.edu/digest/howworks.htm
Carbohydrates (CHO’s) • Major source of energy for body • Role of CHO’s: • Turned into glucose (Sugar) that the body uses to produce energy • Unused CHO’s can be stored: • Glycogen- Stored glucose in liver or muscles • Fat- Excess CHO’s that can’t be stored as glycogen are stored as FAT • 50-65% of food should be Carbohydrates AVOID FOODS THAT HAVE SOME FORM OF SWEETNER (SUGAR) IN THE TOP THREE INGREDIENTS
Simple and Complex CHO’s • There are two types of carbohydrates: • Simple carbohydrates (Sugars) • Used for quick, immediate energy • Examples: fruits, sugars found in dessert foods • MYTH: Eat sugar to boost your energy. • FACT: Your blood glucose level peaks initially, but wears off quickly and below normal levels • Blueberries or not? AVOID FOOD PRODUCTS THAT MAKE HEALTH CLAIMS
Sugar • The problem: Sugar raises your blood levels of insulin, a hormone that signals your body to stop burning — and start storing fat. GET OUT OF THE SUPERMARKET WHENEVER YOU CAN
Sugar • http://education.wichita.edu/caduceus/examples/soda/mindmap.html
Simple and Complex CHO’s • Complex carbohydrates (Starches) • Used to supply long-lasting energy • Broken down into simple carbohydrates over time • Examples: Grains, fibers, beans • FACT: This provides a slow release of glucose over time (Sustained energy) • EAT ONLY FOODS THAT WILL EVENTUALLY ROT
What Are Whole Grains? EATS FOODS MADE FROM INGREDIENTS THAT YOU CAN PICTURE IN THEIR RAW STATE OR GROWING IN NATURE
100% Wheat refers to the fact that wheat is the only grain used. It does not reveal whether the wheat is whole grain. • Cracked Wheat means the grain kernel is broken into coarse, medium, or fine fragments. • Organic refers to the method of farming and processing foods. This is unrelated to whether a product is whole grain. • Pumpernickel is coarse, dark bread made with a mix of rye and wheat flours. It may or may not be made with whole grain flours. • Stone Ground refers to a technique for grinding grains. It usually means the grain is coarser and the germ is often intact, but the bran portion is generally not included. • Bran means that the bran portion of the grain is a key component of the product and may not contain any of the germ portion. Products with added bran (e.g., bran cereals) or bran alone (e.g., oat bran) are not considered whole grain because they do not contain all three portions of the grain. • Be aware that a “healthy” sounding name—on the product label or in the ingredient list doesn’t necessarily mean it’s whole grain. • You’ll need to look at the label or look for whole-grain stamps to help you choose the real whole-grain.
Fiber- A Unique CHO • Fiber • Indigestible type of complex carbohydrate • Eat 20-35 grams of fiber daily • Does not provide Energy • Function: • Helps move waste through digestive system • Helps prevents constipation, heart disease, diabetes and cancers • Avoid Foods you see advertised on Television
Fat (Lipids) • Role of Fat: • Provides a lot of energy in long lasting activities • Aerobic Activities tend to burn BODY FAT • Store Essential Vitamins • Vit. A • Vit. D • Vit. E • Vit. K • Source of Linoleic Acid- Essential for growth and skin care • Buy your snacks at the farmer’s market
Most concentrated form of energy (9 cal/gram) Help insulate body Cushions Organs No more than 30% of daily intake 2 Types Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Fat (Lipids) • If it came from a plant, eat it; if it was made in a plant, don’t
Saturated Fats • 2 Types • Saturated Fats • Tend to be more solid in room temp. • Found in animal meat and dairy • Leading sources in American diet include: red meat, whole milk, cheese, hot dogs, and lunch meats. • Linked to Heart disease Eat your colors
Unsaturated Fats • Unsaturated Fats • Liquid in room temp. • Usually from plant sources: “Oils” • Reduced risk of heart disease
Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 1998, 2006 (*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person) 1998 1990 2006 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30% http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps/
Hydrogenated Oils • Process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats solid fats • Turning some unsaturated fatty acids to trans fatty acids • Used to improve texture and stability • Raise LDL’s Lower HDL’s
Cholesterol • Fatlike substance produced in liver • Found in all animal meat • Adequate cholesterol is essential for many bodily functions, however, too much can cause problems • Atherosclerosis • Disease where cholesterol builds up in artery causing it to narrow
Lipoproteins Cholesterol is carried in the blood in protein-lipid packages called lipoproteins. Shuttles that transport cholesterol to and from the liver. • 2 types of lipoproteins • HDL’s • LDL’s
Good vs. Bad Cholesterol • Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) Shuttle’s cholesterol from liver to organs BAD CHOLESTEROL because if there is more than the body can use it gets deposited in the blood vessels heart attack, stroke.