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Ghettoization: 1900-1940. Cities were not segregated before 1900 Most Blacks lived in rural areas Industrialization and urbanization Growing population of workers in new housing Blacks much more concentrated Black migration to northern cities Labor competition fueled race riots (e.g., 1919)

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ghettoization 1900 1940
Ghettoization: 1900-1940
  • Cities were not segregated before 1900
    • Most Blacks lived in rural areas
  • Industrialization and urbanization
    • Growing population of workers in new housing
    • Blacks much more concentrated
  • Black migration to northern cities
    • Labor competition fueled race riots (e.g., 1919)
    • Legal restrictions followed residential pattern
suburbanization 1940 1970
Suburbanization: 1940-1970
  • Ghettos grew
    • Whites moved to suburbs
    • Blacks moved from South/rural to cities
  • Federal support for homeownership
    • ‘Redlining’ Black neighborhoods
      • FHA loans based on rating system
    • Support for new development, and highways
  • 1960s: Race riots
  • 1968: Fair Housing Act (too late)
concentration 1970s present
Concentration: 1970s-present
  • Concentration of poverty
    • Deindustrialization
    • Fiscal crisis of cities
    • Continued suburbanization
    • Lack of anti-discrimination enforcement
  • Middle-class flight continues
  • New segregated suburbs
  • Some improvements, especially new cities
average percent poor in schools 2000
Average percent poor in schools, 2000

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

black white residential segregation 220 major metro areas
Black/White residential segregation220 major metro areas

Source: Iceland et al. (2002) U.S. Census Bureau.

average neighborhood income black households as of white households
Average neighborhood income: Black households as % of White households

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

average neighborhood income black households as of white households households with 60 000
Average neighborhood income: Black households as % of White households (households with $60,000+)

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

average neighborhood income for households with income 60 000
Average neighborhood income for households with income $60,000+

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

black white segregation of public elementary school children
Black/White segregation of public elementary school children

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

black white segregation of public elementary school children11
Black/White segregation of public elementary school children

Source: Logan (2002), mumford.albany.edu

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