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(1865 – 1900)

(1865 – 1900)

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(1865 – 1900)

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  1. (1865 – 1900) Gilded Age Gilded – covered in a thin layer of gold • Trends of this time period: • Political Corruption • Political Scandals • Economic Depressions (Panic of 1873 & Panic of 1893) • Labor Strikes (Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, & Pullman Strike) • Big profits for business owners, while factory workers and farmers struggle

  2. The Lollypop “Guild”

  3. The Wizard of OZ Book – 1900 Movie – 1905 & 1939

  4. “Disputed” Election of 1876 President – Rutherford Hayes (R) Vice President – William Wheeler

  5. The U.S. Government’s Design “Separation of Powers”

  6. Electoral Commission of 1876 • Why Formed: There were 20 “disputed” electoral votes from 4 states (Oregon, • South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana). • Original Electoral Vote Count:Rep. – Hayes (165) Dem. – Tilden (184) • * Difference in votes – 19 • Purpose: Determine which candidate gets the 20 disputed electoral votes. • Electoral Commission Members: 15 • Job Breakdown – 5 Senators, 5 House Reps., & 5 Supreme Courts Justices • Pol. Party Allegiance Breakdown – 7 Republicans, 7 Democrats, & 1 Independent • 1 “Independent” – Supreme Court Justice David Davis: • Ran for the Senate and got elected • He was removed from the electoral commission and another member of the Supreme • Court was put on the commission in his place. • Only members left on the Supreme Court to fill his position were republicans. • New Pol. Party Allegiance Breakdown – 8 Republicans & 7 Democrats • Electoral Commission’s Decision – Hayes gets the 20 disputed votes • Final Electoral Vote Count:Rep. – Hayes (185) Dem. – Tilden (184) • * Difference in votes – 1

  7. Rutherford B. Hayes Nickname: “Rutherfraud” B. Hayes What compromise did he have to agree with in order for him to get the disputed votes from the Electoral Commission?

  8. Compromise of 1877 Purpose: End the “Reconstruction” system in the south that took place after the Civil War and called for a Union / Federal military occupation of the former states that were in rebellion during the Civil War. • Terms: • The removal of all Federal Union troops from the former Confederate states that • were in rebellion during the Civil War. • * Troops only remained in LA, SC, and FL., but the compromise finalized the • process. • 2. Hayes would appoint one Southern Democrat to his cabinet. • * David Key of TN. was appointed Postmaster General • The construction of another transcontinental railroad would be constructed • through the south. • 4. More laws to help “industrialize” the South. Special Note:Terms 1 & 2 were done, but 3 & 4 were not.

  9. The “Great” Migration (1865 – 1900) Red – states leaving from Blue – states going to

  10. The “Great” Migration (1865 – 1900) “People on the move” Why were they leaving the south?

  11. #1 – Better Job Opportunities

  12. # 2 – Mistreatment

  13. The Great Migration (1865 – 1970) Southern Lynchings (1865 – 1970)

  14. The “Spoils” System Developed By: President Andrew Jackson What: Appointing people to a government job not for their qualifications, but for their loyalty and monetary contributions to you and your campaign. Problem: Unqualified people with no political background are holding government jobs and are helping run the country. Result: Corruption and scandal, which is one characteristic of the Gilded Age. Hayes’ Stance: He wanted to end the spoils system. Hayes’ Success: He had no success ending the spoils system.

  15. Republican Party DivisionHalf-Breeds v. Stalwarts Stalwarts – Republican group that wanted to see the spoils system remain in place. Half-Breeds– Republican group that wanted to see the spoils system ended. Chester Arthur (Stalwart) Roscoe Conkling (Stalwart) James Blaine (Half-Breed) Importance: Because these 2 groups within his political party could not agree on this issue, nothing was done with the spoils system by President Hayes during his presidency.

  16. James Garfield Republican parties choice for the election of 1880. Stalwart or Half-Breed Republican?

  17. Election of 1880 President – James Garfield (R) Vice President – Chester Arthur

  18. James Garfield AssassinationJuly 2, 1881 Where: Washington railroad station. Wound: Two gunshots in the lower back. Medical Care: Doctors checked the wounds without washing their hands or sterilizing their equipment which caused his wounds to get infected. These infections and not the bullets themselves are what killed him. Agony: He suffered in pain for 11 weeks before he died. Died: September 19, 1881

  19. Charles Guiteau Garfield’s Assassin Why: He was angry that he was not given a job by Garfield under the spoils system. “I am Stalwart and Arthur is now President.” - Charles Guiteau after he shot Garfield Insanity?: This case was the first case in U.S. history in which an insanity plea was considered. He randomly recited poetry and asked for advice from members of the courtroom crowd. Fate: Put on trial and sentenced to death by hanging. Execution Date: June 30, 1882 Charles Guiteau (Stalwart)

  20. New President Chester Arthur (Stalwart) * Garfield’s Vice President

  21. Pendelton Civil Service Act (1883) Goal – Help end the spoils system • Terms: • 15 % of all government jobs are classified • Classified – You must pass a thorough examination before • being appointed to any government office Special Note – Chester Arthur chose not to represent the Republican Party in the presidential election of 1884. James Blaine was selected to represent the Republican Party.

  22. Election of 1884 President – Grover Cleveland (D) Vice President – Thomas Hendricks

  23. Interstate Commerce Act (1887) • Gov. Agency Created By This Act: Interstate Commerce • Commission (ICC). • ICC’s Purpose: To regulate railroad shipping rates throughout • the country. • * Shipping rebates were outlawed • ICC’s Targets: Rockefeller and Carnegie • ICC’s Success: 16 cases were brought before the U.S. Supreme • Court by the ICC and they lost 15. Who were the makers of this law trying to help?

  24. Farmers • Reasons: • Because farmers were not frequent customers. Railroad companies were less • willing to give them deals on shipping rates. • Shipping rates were not published by railroad companies, therefore farmers • had no way of knowing what shipping rate they were getting in comparison to • others.

  25. Puck Magazine Illustration (1896)

  26. Wizard of Oz Book Illustration (1900)

  27. Election of 1888 President – Benjamin Harrison (R) Vice President – Levi Morton

  28. Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Terms: Monopolies are outlawed! John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Andrew Carnegie Carnegie Steel Problem with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Too vague Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)

  29. Tariff? Imports – products coming into the country. Export – products leaving the country. Tariff – a tax on an imported good. Price – Tariff = Higher Price Why does a tariff raise the price of a product?

  30. McKinley Tariff Bill (1890) Terms: It placed a higher tariff (48%) on all imported goods that are also produced in the U.S. Imports that were not subject to this tariff:Not made in the U.S. Tea Coffee Spices Opium Sugar Goals: 1. Make U.S. made goods cheaper in comparison to foreign goods. 2. Stimulate the U.S. economy because money is being spent in the country. What type of people were severely hurt by the passage of this law?

  31. Farmers

  32. Why were farmers hurt by the McKinley Tariff Bill (1890)? What did other countries do with their tariff when the U.S. raised their tariff? How does this hurt American farmers? U.S. farmers shipped their crops worldwide and now no one is wanting to buy the U.S. crops because they are more expensive due to a raised tariff. Farmers lost a lot of customers. Why was it passed by state representatives in Congress from states with a high population of farmers (western and southern states)?: Northern states agreed to pass the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.

  33. Paper Money(“Greenbacks” or Dollars) Why is one more valuable than the other?

  34. What determines the value of American paper money? GDP GNP The Economy

  35. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Definition – The total (gross) value of all goods and services produced within a country (domestic) in given time period (usually 1 year) “Measuring Stick” – It measures how good a countries economy is doing inside of its own country. GDP

  36. Gross National Product (GNP) Definition – The total (gross) value of all goods and services produced by a country, or businesses affiliated with that country, “world wide” in a given time period (usually 1 year) “Measuring Stick” – It measures how good a countries economy is doing “world wide”. How much economic activity that country is responsible for throughout the world. GNP

  37. Which one determines the value of American money? GNP

  38. What used to determine the value of American money? The more gold a country had, the more valuable it’s paper money was.

  39. Coinage Act of 1873 “Crime of 1873” Terms: Gold is the only metal that can be turned into coins in U.S. federal coining mints. Why a crime? • Prior to law: Anyone could bring gold or silver into any federal mint to have the gold or silver turned into coins for a fee. They could take the coins and leave or they could choose to take a piece of paper (gold or silver certificate) which is based on the value of the metal they brought in to be coined. • 1873 Federal Mint Silver Exchange Price: $1.29 per oz. • Currency: These pieces of paper (certificates) could be used as money • to buy things. • Exchange: You could also exchange these certificates for gold and silver. Unofficial Law – This law unofficially put the U.S. on the “Gold Standard”. Meaning that American paper money is backed by gold only. No more silver.

  40. “Follow the yellow brick road.”

  41. Who thought that this was a crime? People of the west (farmers and miners) Why? There is now no reason to mine anything other than gold which had become very scarce. The metal that was most abundant out west was silver.

  42. Gold Certificates

  43. Silver Certificates

  44. Coinage Act of 1873 “Crime of 1873” Terms: Gold is the only metal that can be turned into coins in U.S. federal coining mints. Why a crime? • Prior to law: Anyone could bring gold or silver into any federal mint to have the gold or silver turned into coins for a fee. They could take the coins and leave or they could choose to take a piece of paper (gold or silver certificate) which is based on the value of the metal they brought in to be coined. • 1873 Federal Mint Silver Exchange Price: $1.29 per oz. • Currency: These pieces of paper (certificates) could be used as money • to buy things. • Exchange: You could also exchange these certificates for gold and silver. Unofficial Law – This law unofficially put the U.S. on the “Gold Standard”. Meaning that American paper money is backed by gold only. No more silver.

  45. U.S. Gold Shortage(1873 – 1900) Panic of 1873 – World Wide Economic Depression (1873 – 1877) Domestic (U.S.) – People in the U.S. kept their gold and began exchanging their gold certificates for gold seeing that the gold certificates themselves had no value and the gold did. This lead to less gold being circulated in the U.S. economy which caused the value of American paper money to decrease. Foreign (Other Countries) – Gold was only accepted by other countries in the event of any sale because the value of American paper money was declining. This lead to more gold leaving the U.S. economy and causing the value of American paper money to drop even further. BAD! – This made the Panic of 1873 get much worse.

  46. Little Big Horn“Custer’s Last Stand” Date: 1876 Where: Montana (Little Big Horn River) & V. Sitting Bull Sioux Chief Krazy Horse Sioux Chief George Custer U.S. General 7th Cavalry Why was General Custer here?

  47. Laws of Supply and Demand low supply (shortage) = high price high supply (surplus) = low price low demand = low price high demand = high price low supply + low demand = low price low supply + high demand = high price high supply + low demand = low price high supply + high demand = fair price

  48. Deflation v. Inflation • Deflation – The value of the dollar increases (the dollar will buy you more). • * Prices = decrease • On Gold Standard – The U.S. economy is in possession of less gold, making • the gold more valuable, but makes the paper money backed by gold less • valuable. • Law of supply and demand? • Inflation – The value of the dollar decreases (the dollar will buy you less). • * Prices = increase • On Gold Standard – The U.S. economy is in possession of more gold, making • the gold less valuable, but makes the paper money backed by gold more • valuable. • Law of supply and demand?

  49. Farmer Loan Problems • Year # 1: • Loan – $1,000.00 to be paid back next year • Corn Price – $0.25 per ear (4 for $1.00) • Corn production needed to pay back loan – 4,000 ears of corn • Harvest sales expectation – 4,000 x $0.25 = $1,000.00