Looking to the West, 1860-1900. STANDARDS. g. Identify and evaluate the influences on the development of the American West h. Analyze significant events for Native American Indian tribes, and their responses to those events, in the late nineteenth century. THE AMERICAN WEST Stereotypes?.
STANDARDS g. Identify and evaluate the influences on the development of the American West h. Analyze significant events for Native American Indian tribes, and their responses to those events, in the late nineteenth century
THE AMERICAN WEST Stereotypes? Take 2 minutes and write down everything you know about the west.
WHO MOVED WEST AND WHY? (1860) Searching for land and opportunity 1. Miners searching for gold and silver 2. Railroad workers 3. Cowboys 4. farmers
Pacific Railways Acts of 1862 and 1864 • Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads • Received huge land grants from the federal govt • 10 square miles of public land on each side of track • Railroads profited from selling land near tracks • Farmers needed railroads to transport goods to city
Railroad challenges Rough terrain and expensive Labor? Ex-slaves, soldiers, immigrants especially Irish and Chinese (paid lower wages and discriminated against) LIFELINE of the WEST
Homestead Act 1862 – 160 acres of public land to anyone who met these requirements
Sodbusters – a farmer Exoduster- African Americans who left the south for Kansas led by Pap Singleton (planned a mass exodus) to escape violence and exploitation
Culture of Native Americans Nomads Followed the Buffalo How did they kill the Buffalo and what did they use the buffalo for?
Railroads and Settlers • Settlers felt they had a right to the land • Some settlers signed treaties with natives, but both sides had different intentions of what the treaties meant • The Federal Government wanted to place natives on Reservations (federal land set aside for natives)
Sitting Bull and Fall of the Sioux 1868 – Sioux agreed to live on reservations in the Dakotas. 1875 –Gold found in Black Hills so miners moved in and Chief Sitting Bull left
September 30, 1877 • Nez Perce headed to Canada, but was blocked by the military • Many died while being held in the Indian territory, including all of Joseph’s children • Eventually Nez Perce were moved to a reservation in Washington state
Farming • Dry farming – crops that do not require a great deal of water • 1870s – improvements – plow, harrows to break ground, seed drills • 1875 – steam powered threshers • 1890s – corn huskers and corn binders
1862 – Department of Agriculture – added under the Morrill Act • 1880s and 1890s – formulated statistics on markets, studied crop and plant diseases • Distributed publications on crop rotation, hybridization, topsoil
Bonanza farms – farms controlled by large businesses and managed by professionals • Single cash crops • Surplus – prices fell
Debt • Farmers bought to much land and had to mortgage • 1849 – California Gold Rush (Sutter’s Mill, California 1848) • 1859 – rumors of gold strikes in the area of Pike’s Peak, Colorado • “Pikes Peak or Bust!” • Nevada – Comstock Lode • Mining towns led to gambling and drunkeness
Mining Techniques • placer mining – shoveled loose dirt into boxes and ran through water • 1850s and 1860s – deeply buried gold which was harder to get • Larger companies had to do the mining
Cattle Industry • Texas – early 1800s • Longhorn cattle • 1860s and 1870s – booming period • Plains – areas to pasture • Demand for beef in large cities • Railroad aided in cattle industry • Long drive – cowboys would move cattle from place to place (18 hours in the saddle)
Changes in the cattle industry by the 1880s • 1874 – Joseph Glidden – invented barbed wire • Overstocking of cattle • 1885 – beef prices began to fall • 1885 – 1886 – hard winter (loss of 85% of cattle)
Tariffs • Tariffs – encourage the sale of goods produced at home by taxing imports • Hurt farmers • Raised price of manufactured goods • Foreigners had no $ to buy American crops • Helped farmers • Protecting them from farm imports from other countries
Money Issue • Value of money is linked to amount in circulation • If money supply goes up =value of money goes down • CAUSES INFLATION • Reduce the supply of money and the value of money goes up • CAUSES DEFLATION • After Civil War – period of deflation
Farmers want more money in circulation • Manufacturers and other businesses want less money in circulation