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“Arsenal of Democracy”. America and it’s growing role in the War. Germany Control’s Europe. Germany invades France in May, 1940 Dunkirk French and British forces forced to fall back Mass evacuation Nearly 340,000 evacuated to Britain France surrenders June 25, 1940 Pro-German Vichy France

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arsenal of democracy

“Arsenal of Democracy”

America and it’s growing role in the War

germany control s europe
Germany Control’s Europe
  • Germany invades France in May, 1940
  • Dunkirk
    • French and British forces forced to fall back
    • Mass evacuation
      • Nearly 340,000 evacuated to Britain
  • France surrenders June 25, 1940
      • Pro-German Vichy France
      • French Resistance will continue through-out war
germany and britain
Germany and Britain
  • Plan
    • Destroy coastal defenses
    • Pound the British with repeated attacks
    • Cross Channel invasion
  • Blitz
    • 24 hr bombing of Britain begins Sept. 7, 1940
      • Will last until May 1941
  • Plan scrapped
    • Italy has trouble with Greece
      • Germany forced to assist
    • Prepare for larger invasion
operation barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
  • Germany plans to invade Russia in May 1941
    • Italy’s issues with Greece delay attack
  • Invasion begins June 22, 1941 with 4.5 million troops
    • Late start will come back to haunt Germany
  • Move quickly
    • Control industrial center of Ukraine
    • Make it to Moscow Oct. 1941 but weather sets in
      • Duh moment
  • Stalled in Leningrad
the united state 1940 1941
The United State 1940-1941
  • Dec. 1940
    • FDR addresses the nation
      • America will remain out of war
      • Will supply Allied powers
        • “Arsenal of Democracy”
    • FDR’s plans
      • 185,000 aircraft
      • 120,000 tanks
preparation for war
Preparation for War
  • Selective Service Act of 1940
    • Fill 90 Divisions
    • 16.4 million will serve by end of war
    • African-Americans
      • Represent 10% of population, but only 6% of Armed forces
        • Marines: No blacks until 1943
        • Navy: crew service and dock workers
        • Army: non-combat
        • Army Air Corps: Tuskegee Airmen
from car to tanks
From Car to Tanks
  • Office of Price Administration
    • Regulate prices and rationing
  • Office of War Mobilization
    • Major corporations will reconvert to war materials
      • Major contracts go to larger corporations
american priorities
American Priorities
  • America adopts a “Europe First Policy”
    • Cemented in June 1941 with German invasion of Russia
      • Planners agree Russia will not hold out
  • Japan
    • Diplomacy and US Navy will keep “Those folks in line”
a date which will live

“A Date Which Will Live…”

America Enters the War

pearl harbor hawaii
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  • Nov. 26, 1941
    • Japanese fleet including 6 aircraft carriers leave Japan
  • Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941
    • 6:05 am: First Wave take off
      • 183 planes
    • 6:55 am USS Ward sinks a midget sub near harbor
    • 7:51 the attack begins
        • A second wave of 173 planes does most damage to fleet
day of infamy
“Day of Infamy”
  • Aftermath of the attack
    • 4 battleships sunk
    • 4 battleships damaged
    • 350 aircraft destroyed
    • 3 destroyers and 3 cruisers sunk
    • 2,402 killed
      • 1,117 on the USS Arizona
      • 68 civilians killed
  • Doris “Dorie” Miller
    • Cook on USS W. Virginia
    • Takes up a .50 caliber in defense
    • Wins Navy Cross
    • Dies in battle Dec. 7, 1943
we have awaken a sleeping giant
“We Have Awaken a Sleeping Giant”
  • Accomplishments
    • Knocks out the US battleship fleet
    • Knocks out Pacific Fleet’s ability to defend Pacific
      • Opens door to further invasions
  • Failures
    • Failed to send 3rd wave
    • Carrier Fleet out at sea
    • Sub piers, fuel and ammo depots, shipyards, and head quarters not attacked
    • Brought America into WWII
not just pearl
Not Just Pearl
  • Pearl was meant to take out US Navy
  • Japanese quickly advance through Pacific
    • Take Hong Kong, Guam, Wake Island
    • Destroy US planes on Philippines
      • Begin invasion
    • Make their way South
      • Goal: Block and take out Australia
the world is on fire
The World is on Fire
  • Dec. 8, 1941
    • FDR calls a special session of Congress
    • Address the nation on the attacks on Pearl Harbor
    • Congress quickly passes a declaration of war
  • Dec. 11, 1941
    • Germany and Italy declare war on the US
battle for bataan
Battle for Bataan
  • Japanese invade Philippines Dec. 22, 1941
  • US and Filipino troops forced to Bataan Peninsula and Corregidor Island
    • March 12, 1942 General MacArthur forced by FDR to Australia
  • April 9, 1942: Gen. King surrenders Bataan
  • May 1942: Corregidor falls
death march
Death March
  • 63,000 Filipino and 12,000 Americans surrender
    • Japanese unprepared for the amount
    • Forced march to Camp O’Donnell
      • 62 miles
    • Atrocities are numerous
    • 650 Americans and 5,000 to 9,000 Filipinos die
    • Only 350 Americans will survive the POW camps
doolittle raid
Doolittle Raid
  • April 16, 1942
  • 16 B-25 bombers take off from the USS Hornet
    • Led by Jimmy Doolittle
  • Make bombing run over Tokyo
  • Minimal damage
    • But morale lifted
  • 71 of 80 pilots return home
europe first

Europe First

North Africa and the Mediterranean

2 nd front
2nd Front
  • Stalin wants a 2nd European Front
    • Soviet are being slaughtered in East
  • Churchill
    • Focus on Mediterean
      • Africa, Italy, Balkans
  • FDR
    • Wants 2nd front
    • Agrees with Churchill
      • Front pushed off for invasion of Africa
north africa prior to us
North Africa Prior to US
  • Italian’s hope to capture Egypt and Suez Canal
    • Both controlled by British
  • Operation Compass
    • Italy invades Egypt
    • British push them back to Tunisia
  • German Intervention
    • Post Greece fall
    • German’s under Erwin Rommel enter battle
operation torch
Operation Torch
  • Joint US and British Invasion of North Africa
    • East to West attack
  • US takes Vichy French Morocco
  • British take Oran and Algiers
battle of kasserine pass
Battle of Kasserine Pass
  • Feb. 1943
    • Untested Americans against Rommel’s Panzer division
    • US force routed
  • Gen. Patton takes charge of US forces
    • Whips them into shape
    • Meets Panzers again
      • US takes this one
      • Rommel is gone
el alamein
El Alamein
  • 1st Battle
    • Stalemate
  • 2nd Battle
    • Erwin “The Desert Fox” Rommel (Ger.)vs. Bernard Montgomery (Brit)
    • British Defeat Germans
    • Turn tide of Africa campaign
    • Rommel ordered back to Germany
tehran conference
Tehran Conference
  • Nov. 28-Dec. 1, 1943
  • 1st meeting of the Big 3
    • Stalin, FDR, & Churchill
  • Accomplishment
    • 2nd Front agreed to
      • Take place in May, 1944
    • United Nations created
    • Push to get Turkey on side of allies
    • Borders of Poland accomplished
operation mincemeat the man who never was
Operation Mincemeat: “The man who Never Was”
  • Attempt to fool Germans about planned invasion of Sicily
  • British officer with documents dropped in Med.
    • Documents report planned invasion
    • Germans fall for deception
operation huskey
Operation Huskey
  • July 9, 1943
  • Joint US and British invasion of Sicily
    • US take West and British East
      • US to act as support
        • Patton not happy
  • Race to Messina
    • Patton takes Palermo in record speed
    • US wins race
      • At a price
aftermath of sicily
Aftermath of Sicily
  • Aug. 3, 1943
    • Patton visits military hospital
    • Charles Kuhl is a shell shocked soldier
    • Enraged Patton slaps him
      • Reported
      • Nearly ends his career
  • German forces retreat to Italy before Messina falls
    • Now much larger force for allies to worry about
operation avalanche
Operation Avalanche
  • FDR opposed to Italy invasion
    • Wants material to be used for 2nd European Front
    • Churchill wins
    • Stalin upset
  • Sept. 3, 1943
    • US and British forces land in Salerno, Italy
italy falls
Italy Falls
  • Italy surrenders Sept. 8, 1943
    • Germany takes control
  • Stalemate
  • Second US invasion at Anzio
  • Italy campaign officially ends with end of European war
  • Mussolini
    • Executed on April 28, 1945
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Execution_of_Mussolini_(1945).ogg
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