Democracy and Development Antebellum America through 1850 Mr. Giesler American History
Major Themes We Will Examine The Market Revolution Jeffersonian America The War of 1812 The Age of Jackson
The Market Revolution • National in Scope • Regional Varriations
The Market Revolution • TTYN: Read the following statement and describe what it means • “The Market revolution was national in scope, but had significant regional variations” • What Was the Market Revolution? • The emergence and growth of manufacturing and industrial revolution in New England and Northeast cities • The Emergence of commercialization of farming driven by transportation revolution in Northwest • The continued growth of the cotton industry in the South
The Market Revolution • Implications of the Market Revolution? • Result: regional and specific economies emerged • Provided the framework for political, social, and economic sectionalism • From local to all over the world • A different society was developing • Transportation Revolution • Steamboats (1817 20 boats to 775 in 1855) • Railroads (1830 13 miles to 31,000 in 1860) • Canals • Roads (began to develop in the 1800’s (turnpikes = toll roads)
The Market Revolution • Why the Erie Canal? • Surge in western population • Limited access to eastern markets • Canal boom: the Erie Canal, 1825 • 364 miles long, 40 ft wide, 4 ft deep; Linked Great Lakes to Albany and NYC; Transformed the northern economy
The Market Revolution The Erie Canal Song Low bridge ev'-rybod-y down, Low bridge for we're com-in to a town, And you al-ways know your neighbor, You'll always know your pal, If you've ev-er navigated on the Er-ie can-al I've got a mule, and her name is Sal, Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie canal, She's a good ol' worker and a good ol' pal, Fifteen miles on the Er-ie can-al, We've hauled some barges in our day, Filled with lum-ber coal and hay, And ev'ry inch of the way we know From Al-ba-ny to Buff-a-lo OH We'd better look round for a job old gal,Fif-teen miles - on the Er-ie can-al,You bet your life I wouldn't part with Sal,Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie can-al,Giddap 'there gal we've passed that lock,We'll make Rome fore six o'clock,So, it's one more trip and then we'll go,Right back home to Buff-a-lo OH…….
The Market Revolution • Erie Canal reduces transportation costs by 90-95% • Prices of Consumer goods go down • Price of farm product stabilize and remain stable • Exciting and very opportunistic time • Produces a consumer society • Communication revolution
The Market Revolution • Transportation of newspaper • Invention of the steam press • Cheap books • Cheap newspaper – now the whole country can remain informed, which makes for a better citizen, more informed citizen • Telegraph • Annihilation of time and space
The Market Revolution • Economies and Regions Specialize • Individual and Regional • Individual • Farmer develops a cash crop, has a surplus • NY State specifically = dairy farmers (concentrates on one product/crop)
The Market Revolution • The Market Revolution – The “brainchild “ of Alexander Hamilton • Workers become de-skilled (artisans); become specialist at one specific skill • Ultimately it lowers wages; lower wages, but they are employed • TTYN:Who benefits from this specialization? • Consumers benefits due to the lower costs for production (mass consumption vs. mass distribution)
The Market Revolution Regional Implications Southern States • Agricultural, cotton • “The” Invention that changed everything – The Cotton Gin 1793 • What happens to the South • A society that is totally devoted to cotton • TTYN: What segment(s) of society will be affected by this change? • Plantation Owners and Slaves • Greater need for slavery (slavery grows) • Cotton becomes extremely profitable Slave values 1802 - $600 1860 - $1800 No. of slaves 1802 -1.5M 1860 - 4M
The Market Revolution • Northeast • Prior to the Market Revolution • Pre-industrial manufacturing • The workshop system • The putting-out system • Impact of the Revolution • Industry (factories) • Need for people and more people • Need capital • Power source (rivers) • Rivers with falls; i.e. Merrimack River in Mass.
The Market Revolution Northwest ( the Midwest) • Agricultural - wheat, corn and soybeans • Moving, moving, moving • Acquire the land (there is a lot of it)
The Market Revolution • Early Inventions during the late 18th and early 19th centuries • The Cotton Gin • The Textile Mill • The Spinning Wheel • Bleaching: The Progress of cotton • The Steam Engine • The Erie Canal • TTYN: What was the impact of each? • How did the economies of the North and South change? • What were the results of these changes?
The Market Revolution • Small Group Activity • The Lowell Mill Girls Reading
The Market Revolution The Henry Clay
Topics We Will Examine • Jeffersonian Democracy • Limited Central Government and Pro States Rights • Judicial powers strengthen • Territorial expansion • The Demise of the Federalist Party • Revival of the Two-Party System
Jeffersonian Democracy • Abandoned Aristocratic Democracy • TTYN:What is an Aristocrat? • Jefferson: The Founder of American Democracy? • Wrote the Declaration of Independence • Led and largely created the Republican Party, by which the Federalists, who were anti-democratic, were unseated • First President who believed in democracy and sought to establish it • Jefferson – A democrat for the people, not of the people!
Jeffersonian Democracy • Thomas Jefferson biographer once wrote that “there were probably twice of thrice many four-horse carriages in Virginia before the revolution as there are at present time; but the number of two-horse carriages may be ten, or even twenty times as great as at the former period.” • TTYN:What does this statement illustrate? The Progress of Democracy
Jeffersonian Democracy • TTYN: Read the passage below. What is Jefferson telling the reader? The ‘real’ meaning. • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it.”
Jeffersonian Democracy • Clash With Hamilton • Hoped plutocracy would evolve into aristocracy • Corruption as the best method for causing plutocracy to prevail over democracy • Argued that the President and Senators should be chosen for life. • leader of the Federalists • Hamilton advocated the growth of manufactures • Child Labor was good • Dislike democracy • Admired England and aimed at making America resemble • Jefferson stood for democracy and agriculture, Hamilton for aristocracy and urban wealth
Jeffersonian Democracy • Jefferson’s goal as president: • Restore the principles of the American Revolution • Why? • Federalists levied oppressive taxes • Stretched the provisions of the Constitution • Established a national bank, which created bastion of wealth and special privileges for a few • Federalist also had subverted civil liberties and expanded the powers of the central government at the expense of the states. • Jefferson wanted a return to basic republican principles.
Jeffersonian Democracy • The Meaning of Jefferson’s Democracy • When he says “self-evident,” he means it. • The essence of virtue is in doing good to others • Believed in the innate goodness of man that gives the basis for his liberalism • Believed that most men, on the whole, will follow their consciences. • For a few exceptions, laws may be necessary; but in the main, liberty is all that is needful for the promotion of human happiness. • Favored democracy by the masses • Faith in the common man • Strict interpretation of the constitution • Favored a nation of farmers
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts TTYN: What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? • The Alien and Sedition Acts • 1798 the United States was at the brink of war with France (XYZ Affair) • Federalists believed that Democratic-Republican criticism of Federalist policies was disloyal and feared that aliens living in the United States would sympathize with the French during a war. • Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws, known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. • Raised the residency requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years • Authorized the President to deport aliens • Permitted the arrest, imprisonment, and deportation of aliens during wartime. • The Sedition Act made it a crime for American citizens to "print, utter, or publish . .any false, scandalous, and malicious writing" about the Government. • The laws were directed against Democratic-Republicans, the party typically favored by new citizens
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Whiskey Rebellion • Excise tax imposed on whiskey in 1791 by the federal government, farmers in the western counties of Pennsylvania engaged in a series of attacks on excise agents. • Jefferson believed that the purpose of government is to protect the “unalienable rights” of its citizens, and that these rights include “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” • People have the right to rebel • Believed a little rebellion now and then was a good thing “…a medicine necessary for “the sound health of government.” “the first error was to pass it (the whiskey tax); the second was to enforce it; and the third, to make it the means of splitting this Union.”
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights • Jefferson believed that local government was most important • Believed that the emphasis for government should concentrate within the county and state • While President, Jefferson slashed government expenditures “I am not a friend to a very energetic government. It is always oppressive.” “Most bad government has grown out of too much government” • Reduced the national debt • Convinced Congress to cut the price of public lands and to extend credit to purchasers in order to encourage land ownership and rapid western settlement • Reduced the size of the military • Although Jefferson condemned Hamilton’s Financial Plan, he did authorize to incorporate the United State Bank
Jefferson’s War against the Judiciary • Jefferson took office, not a single Republican served as a federal judge. • Jefferson feared that the Federalists intended to use the courts to frustrate Republican plans. • Jefferson’s Goal - weaken Federalist control of the federal judiciary. • The Judiciary Act of 1801, which was passed by the lame-duck Federalist-dominated Congress five days before Adams's term expired. • The law created 16 new federal judgeships, positions which President Adams promptly filled with Federalists. • The act reduced the number of Supreme Court justices effective with the next vacancy, delaying Jefferson's opportunity to name a new Supreme Court justice. • Jefferson's supporters in Congress repealed the Judiciary Act.
Jefferson’s War against the Judiciary • Judiciary act of 1801 (Jefferson repealed) • Compelled court to deliver commissions • Marbury v. Madison • Congress had no constitutional right to give federal courts the powers of Jud. Act • Supreme Court Chief John Marshall • Small Group Activity • The Marshall Court
Territorial Expansion • France forced Spain to relinquish claims to North America interior • Louisiana Purchase 1803; cost 15M • France sold to help fund Napoleons war • Mississippi to the Rockies • 13 states will result • Lewis and Clark 1803-1806 • Missouri to Columbia TTYN:Does the Louisiana Purchase depict Jefferson as an hypocrite? In other words, isn’t this “huge” purchase a symbol of ‘big’ government?
The Embargo Act • Jefferson’s desperate attempt to avert war with Britain • Jefferson and United States imposed an embargo on foreign trade. • Jefferson believed the embargo as an idealistic experiment--a moral alternative to war. • Believed that economic coercion would convince Britain and France to respect America’s neutral rights. • The embargo was an unpopular and costly failure. • Hurt the American economy far more than the British or French, and resulted in widespread smuggling. • Farm prices fell sharply. Shippers suffered, Harbors filled with idle ships and nearly 30,000 sailors found themselves jobless. • Jefferson believed that Americans would cooperate with the embargo out of a sense of patriotism.
The Embargo Act • Instead, smuggling flourished, particularly through Canada. • To enforce the embargo, Jefferson took steps that infringed on his most cherished principles: individual liberties and opposition to a strong central government. • He mobilized the army and navy to enforce the blockade, and declared the Lake Champlain region of New York, along the Canadian border, in a state of insurrection. • TTYN: How does this contradict with Jefferson’s doctrine regarding a limited Gov’t? • Pressure to abandon the embargo mounted, and early in 1809, just 3 days before Jefferson left office, Congress repealed the embargo.
The War of 1812 • Defending American Rights on the High Seas • Causes • In 1809, Congress replaced the failed embargo with the Non-Intercourse Act • Non-Intercourse Act -- Reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France. • 1810, Non-Intercourse Act with a new measure, Macon's Bill • Reopened trade with France and Britain. • Stipulation -- that if either Britain or France agreed to respect America's neutral rights, the United States would immediately stop trade with the other nation.
The War of 1812 • Defending American Rights on the High Seas • Causes • Britain --Seizure and forced sale of merchant ships and their cargoes for allegedly violating the British blockade of Europe • France -- declared a counterblockade of the British Isles and had seized American ships • England was the chief offender because its Navy had greater command of the seas. • Impressment -- capture of men from American vessels for forced service in the Royal Navy; pretext for impressment was the search for deserters, who, the British claimed, had taken employment on American vessels.
The War of 1812 • Why Go to War? • War Hawks -- Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east • To allow reopening of trade • National Pride • To stop the impressment of sailors • Oh CANADA!!!
The War of 1812 What were some drawbacks to going to war? • Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war • The U.S. military was small; Standing Army was small • Militia comprised most of our forces, and they did not like to fight outside of their state borders • Navy was quite small only 22 ships • Britain was still a great Superpower and easily defeat us • We could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or from the Louisiana Purchase
The War of 1812 • U.S. Burns York (now Toronto, CA) • Why attack Canada? • U.S. calculated that the Canadians would join the Americans help defeat Britain …this did not happen • Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie • Provided the U.S. control of Lake Erie • Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard • Remember – Britain Navy vs. U.S. Navy…no comparison • British Blockade -- prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast…Industry!!!
The War of 1812 • In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C. • The British burn the White House and the Capitol • Madison and Congress barely escape
The War of 1812 • The Battle of New Orleans • Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified) • Why was New Orleans important? • Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops • Made Andrew Jackson a National hero and household name • Ensured treaty ratification
The War of 1812 The Battle of Fort McHenry • Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British • The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British • After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attack • Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem "Defense of Fort McHenry," which becomes the National Anthem.