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Brief! Organic Chemistry for AP. Alkanes. Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Name uses the ending – ane Examples: Meth ane , Prop ane , But ane , Oct ane , 2-methylpent ane. Prefixes for # of Carbons. Endings.

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alkanes
Alkanes
  • Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds
  • Name uses the ending –ane
  • Examples: Methane, Propane, Butane, Octane, 2-methylpentane
endings
Endings
  • Alkanes (all C-C single bonded parent chain) end in –ane
    • MethaneCH4
    • EthaneC2H6
    • PropaneC3H8
  • Attached carbon groups (substituents) end in –yl
    • Methyl CH3 -
    • EthylCH3CH2-
    • Propyl CH3CH2CH2 –  

3-ethylpentane

names of attached groups
Names of attached groups
  • Carbon (alkyl) groups
    • Methyl CH3 -
    • EthylCH3CH2-
    • Propyl CH3CH2CH2 –
  • Halogens
    • Fluoro (F-)
    • Chloro (Cl-)
    • Bromo (Br-)
    • Iodo (I-)
designate the location
Designate the Location
  • Designate the location (number of the carbon on the parent chain) for each attached group

2-methyl

1 2 3 4 5

some simple alkanes
Some Simple Alkanes
  • 2-methylpentane
  • 3-ethylhexane
  • 2,2-dimethylbutane
  • 2,3-dimethylbutane
structural formulas
Structural Formulas
  • “Lazy” way to write the Hydrogens
  • Instead of drawing the bonds, just state how many hydrogens are attached
  • NOTE: The bonds are between CARBONS in a parent chain, and not hydrogens!

Structural Formula

Lewis Structure

drawing and naming cycloalkanes
Drawing and Naming Cycloalkanes

Cycloalkanes are represented by polygons. A triangle represents cyclopropane, a square represents cyclobutane, a pentagon represents cyclopentane, and so on.

isomers
Isomers
  • Straight chain alkanes: An alkane that has all its carbons connected in a row.
  • Branched chain alkanes: An alkane that has a branching connection of carbons.
  • Isomers: Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures.
slide11
However, carbons in butane (C4H10) can be arranged in two ways; four carbons in a row (linear alkane) or a branching (branched alkane). These two structures are two isomers for butane.
slide12
Different isomers are completely different compounds. They have different structures, different physical properties such as melting point and boiling point, and may have different physiological properties.
learning check
Learning Check
  • Draw all possible structural isomers of C5H12
alkenes and alkynes
Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Unsaturated
    • contain carbon-carbon double and triple bond to which more hydrogen atoms can be added.
  • Alkenes: carbon-carbon double bonds
  • Alkynes: carbon-carbon triple bonds.
naming alkenes and alkynes
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes

When the carbon chain has 4 or more C atoms, number the chain to give the lowest number to the double or triple bond.

1 2 3 4

CH2=CHCH2CH3 1-butene

CH3CH=CHCH3 2-butene CH3CCCH3 2-butyne

aromatic compounds and benzene
Aromatic Compounds and Benzene

Aromatic compounds contain benzene.

Benzene, C6H6 , is represented as a six carbon ring with 3 double bonds.

Two possible resonance structures can be drawn to show benzene in this form.