Here’s some notes to keep with you… Thank you for being such a wonderful class- Lisa
APA Overview Body Page and In-Text Citations In addition to the attacks on the children, “a Maryland father, disappointed that his son had been left off the all-star team, knocked down and kicked a coach” (Lord, 2001, p.52).
APA Overview Reference Page
Thesis StatementDiving into the 3 or so ‘Main Points’… A Thesis Statement: tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. The causes of World War I were economic, social, and political. Main talking points- 1. economic 2. social 3. political Fast-food restaurants are offering healthy alternatives as seen in Arby’s, Wendy’s and Subway. Main talking points 1. Arby’s 2. Wendy’s 3. Subway
email manual newspaper text book magazine article resume diary medical journal IM proposal differences between formal and informal writing INFORMAL writing uses features of any varietyof spoken English including both slang and contractions. FORMALwriting is written in Standard American English, and isfree ofslang and contractions.
Numbers Expressed in Figures • Numbers 10 and above • Numbers below 10 grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above (in the same paragraph, and in the same categories of items) • In 8 of the 20 studies • Scores improved for 3 students at Site A and for 15 students at Site B. • Percentages, dates, ages, samples/subsamples, scores and points on a scale • Of the 8 particpants, ages 2 to 4, 30% were… • A 7-point scale was used • Numbers in a numbered series • Grade 5 (but would be “fifth grade science class…”) • Table 6 in chapter 4
Numbers Expressed in Words • Any number that begins a sentence, title, or heading • Fifteen students reported… (vs. Results indicated that 15 students…) • Numbers below 10 not grouped for comparison with numbers above 10 • Fractions • Results show that one-third of all respondents…
Integrating Sources STEP 3b: CITE THE SOURCE--REFERENCE PAGE In-text …numbers of rowdy children off the streets and to teach them values (Nack & Munson, 2000). The American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Sports Medicine and Committee on School Health (2001) are concerned for the preadolescent children who participate in sports and have outlined “[...] important objectives for parents, coaches and officials” (p. 583). Corresponding Reference Page Entries • Link the in-text citation • to a corresponding entry • on the Reference page • and: • Use “hanging indentations” • Alphabetize entries • Double space
What is 3rd Person? Third person narrative form is writing from the omniscient point of view. NO I, you, we, our, us, my…etc…
No “I will explain in this final project how gangs are destroying youth in our country.” (keep yourself out of your formal academic research paper) *3rd person (no I, we, our, us, me, my, etc…) But, why?
“I think there was a bank robbery reported on Elm Street at 3 o’clock.”OR“A robbery was reported on Elm Street at 3 o’clock.” Wh Which is more professional for the anchor to say?
Why 3rd person does not work… “In our country, 63% of juveniles have committed a crime by the age of 15.” Psst! Your paper just ended up in England. The reader now thinks you are speaking about juveniles in England… (that is bloody awful!)
YES! Before Gangs are a growing problem in our country, but we must get involved in programs to help them get out. After Gangs are a growing problem in the United States, yet when society gets involved through various programs, juveniles have a chance at a gang-free childhood.
what information is considered unreliable? Search engines (like Google, Yahoo or MSN) are free to anyone with access to the Internet, but there are no review or evaluation standards, and since nearly anyone can publish web pages, the information is not always reliable. Wikipedia is NOT scholarly site. Although there are some reputable, scholarly contributors, it is an online encyclopedia that anyone (regardless of credentials) can edit.
In-Text Citations • (x, y, z) • x = author’s last name or title of work (whichever is listed first in your References page) • y= year published or n.d. (no date) • Z= p. (page number) (pp. multiple pages) para. (paragraph) • Gordon, R.A. & Snowden, P.E. (2002). School Leadership and Administration: Important Concepts, Case Studies, & Simulations. (6th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill, p. 142. (Gordon & Snowden, 2002, p. 142)
Na………tion,” 002). (“Caffeine Where can I find the original? Caffeine is one of the fastest acting drugs known to man. When we drink it, almost every cell in the body, including the brain, absorbs it within minutes….Caffeine intercepts adenosine, turning [its] "I’m tired" message into "I’m wide awake." The result is an invigorating buzz coffee drinkers crave (Sunday Morning, 2002). No! See below… . References Brain, M. (2007). Caffeine. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from How Stuff Works Web site: http://health.howstuffworks.com/caffeine.htm Caffeine nation. (2002, November 14). Retrieved September 2, 2007, from Sunday Morning Web site: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/11/14/Sunday/main529388.shtml Owen, D. (2006). Coffee and caffeine FAQs. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from http://coffeefaq.com/site/node/25 The parenthetical citation and reference list entry for a source should be the first thing you see- so..it should be (Caffeine nation, 2002).
Quotation Examples (Under 40 words) Psychologists and researchers generally agree that “conformity is a change in behavior caused by a desire to follow the norms of a group” (Waitley, 1993, p. 371). ….over 40 words? Use a ‘block quote’
APA Body Page Block Quote
Personal Communication- Interview *But, remember, it will NOT be on the References page (first initial. last name, personal communication, full date) (M. Singer, personal communication, March 3, 2008) (V.G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
ET AL. “Et al.’ is a scholarly abbreviation of the Latin phrase et alia, which means “and others.” It is commonly used when you don’t want to name all the people or things in a list- (similar to “etc.”) “The reorganization plan was designed by Alfred E. Newman, General Halftrack, Zippy the Pinhead, et al.; and it very effective.” The “al.” in this phrase needs a period after it to indicate it is an abbreviation of alia; but it is incorrect to put a period after “et.”
Example: Do not use et al. right away…you must list them all first- then, you can use et al. if you use this same in-text citation later EXAMPLE: (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Jackson, & Harlow, 1993) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. (Kernis et al., 1993)
The introduction to your persuasive research paper (which includes your thesis statement) consists of a paragraph or two that provides a general context for, or overview of, your topic’s primary issues and controversies. Your introduction should be engaging and entice the audience to want to continue reading. Introductions- start it off cool!
Sentence Connectors Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give paragraphs coherence. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at the beginning of a sentence. They are used to introduce, order, contrast, sequence ideas, theory, data etc. The following table lists useful connectors.
First impressions count! They can set the tone for the events to follow. The goal is to grab the reader’s attention, pull the reader into the paper and give him or her a reason to keep reading. • Create a compelling introduction • Begin with a quotation or a definition • Pose a question • Present the opposing viewpoint • Open with a brief narrative • Open with a startling fact or statistic introductions
The conclusion of a research paper moves away from specific points made in the body toward a general summary or overview of those points—a reminder of the most important points you made. A strong conclusion is like the end of a great movie— it leaves us with a message of value. Some readers will even have what I call an “Ah- haa” moment. A really strong conclusion might even inspire the reader to take action! conclusions
Ideas Before Final Submission • Walk away from it for a bit • Print it up and proofread • Have a friend, relative, co-worker find the thesis statement and main ideas • Use the ‘Checklist’
Final Project Checklist • This is not an exhaustive inventory, but the following checklist will help you be sure you to include the necessary components of the paper: • _____Does your title page meet the correct APA format requirements? • _____Did you include a running header? • _____ Is the thesis statement clearly stated in the first paragraph? • ____ _Do you have the correct number of required pages of text? (not counting Title and References pages) • ____ _Is your text double-spaced? • _____ Do you have 1" margins and a consistent, traditional 12 point font? • ______Does the paper directly refer to at least 5 sources? • ______Is the entire paper in 3rd person? (no ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘our’ ,’us’, etc) • ______Is the body of your paper persuasive? • ______Are the transitions between paragraphs strong and do they propel the reader forward? • ______You did not use fancy coloring, borders, illustrations, etc. • ______Does your conclusion tie all your ideas together leave the reader with something memorable? • ______Do you have an APA formatted References page(s)? (Alphabetical, hanging indentions, evenly double-spaced throughout) • * I have saved an electronic copy of my paper.
What’s the reward? • Professional credibility • Greater “confidence and competence” in writing The editors of Mastering APA Style say: The more you use APA style, the more mastery you will achieve. When you achieve mastery, you will have internalized good writing skills as well as the basic style rules. Thus in any subsequent writing you do, you will need to consult the Publication Manual less and less often and will approach any writing task with greater confidence and competence. (Gelfland & Walker, 2002, p. 5)
Relax…these things take time to learn…“I have a headache…I hate APA”-the dog