week 8 notes n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Week 8 Notes PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Week 8 Notes

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 79

Week 8 Notes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 144 Views
  • Uploaded on

Week 8 Notes. Tonight Weather Review Term Paper Outline Guidelines AMS Climate Change Policy (HW#6) Airmasses and Fronts ( Chp 8) El Niño Classwork (HW#7) El Niño and La Niña March 24 – No Class (Spring Break) March 31 – No Class (Cesar Chavez Day). Week 8 Notes (cont’d). April 7

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Week 8 Notes


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
  1. Week 8 Notes • Tonight • Weather Review • Term Paper Outline Guidelines • AMS Climate Change Policy (HW#6) • Airmasses and Fronts (Chp 8) • El Niño Classwork (HW#7) • El Niño and La Niña • March 24 – No Class (Spring Break) • March 31 – No Class (Cesar Chavez Day)

  2. Week 8 Notes (cont’d) • April 7 • Remote Sensing • Weather Forecasting • Review for Midterm #2 • April 14 • Midterm #2 • Term paper Outlines Due • April 21 • Thunderstorms and Tornadoes

  3. Due Apr 14 • Typed • Double Spaced • Formatted per next page • References • At Least 3 references • You can add more references later • Only 1/3 Internet only sources • Proper formatting for electronic sources • APA Format only (link in Syllabus) Term Paper Outline

  4. I. Introduction • II. Three Major Points • A. Point 1. • 1. Subpoint 1 • 2. Subpoint 2 • B. Point 2. • 1. Subpoint 1 • 2. Subpoint • C. Point 3. • 1. Subpoint 1 • 2. Subpoint 2 • III. Summary • References: • At Least 3 references • APA Format only (link in Syllabus) • Only 1/3 Internet Sources (and properly formatted) Term Paper Outline

  5. I. Introduction • A. Performed by Committee of Citizens named by Board of Educ. • B. Findings: • 1.  Unsatisfactory sports facilities • 2.  Ongoing traffic and parking congestion. • 3.  Outdated science labs • 4.  Outdated physical facilities: • II. Funding  Sources: • A. Bond  referendum  passed  by  votes  of  four  sending  towns  on  12/9/03. • B. Breakdown: • 1. $8.8 million provided by communities via increased taxes. • 2. $6.3 million provided by State of NJ via school funding pool. • C.      Timetable for Expenditures: • III.   Benefits to School and District: • A. Reduction of Special Education costs by keeping students at school. • B. Maintenance of Property values for sending district real estate. • C. Enhancement of education program at the school. • IV.  Drawbacks to School and District: • A. Increased property taxes to residents for 15-20 years to pay off bond. • B. Disruption of academic programs at Gateway during the period of construction. • C. Re-location of sporting events and some programs during renovations. • V.  Conclusion:  Although there will be some costs involved and some disruption, believe the benefits of renovating Gateway H.S., with substantial funding from the State of N.J., are in the best interests of all students and residents. Sample Term Paper Outline

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY • IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • Set up by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) • IPCC Fourth Assessment Report 2007 • 1000+ Scientists • Synthesis of Exisitng Research • No Actual research or Data Collection • AMS – American Meteorological Society

  7. AMS CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY - HW#6 • Divide into SIX GROUPS • Read individually your section • Discuss as a group • Come up with at least one “bullet point” per paragraph • Choose a group spokesperson who will present to the class • Each group will turn in a sheet of paper with members names CLEARLY WRITTEN • Group: • #1 – Background • #2 – How is Climate Changing? • #3 – Why is Climate Changing? • #4 – How Can Climate Change be Projected in the Future? • #5 – How will Climate Change in the Future? (First 4 paras) • #6 – How will Climate Change in the Future? (Last 4 paras)

  8. Air Masses and Fronts

  9. Air Mass Development Semi-permanent circulation patterns provide consistent wind patterns and breeding grounds for air masses.

  10. Air Mass Properties • Take on the properties of the underlying surface • Characterized by Temperature and Humidity • Classified by location of “origin” • Geographically • Tropical • Polar • Arctic • Surface Properties • Maritime • continental • Characteristics more prevalent if air mass remains over source region for a long period

  11. Air Mass Classifications • cP - continental Polar • Cold, dry, stable • Extremely cold cP air mass may be designated cA (continental Arctic) • mP - maritime Polar • Cool, moist, unstable • mT - maritime Tropical • Warm, moist, usually unstable • cT - continental Tropical • Hot, dry • Stable air aloft, unstable surface air • cA – continental Arctic

  12. Air Mass Source Regions

  13. Continental Polar (cP) • Cold, Dry • Develops over the interior of • North America -- Central Canada -- Siberia Arctic Air (cA) • Bitterly Cold and Very Dry • Develops over the snow or ice usually north of 60° N

  14. Marine Polar (mP) • Cold, Moist • Source: Cold ocean waters of the North Pacific and North Atlantic • Often conversion of cP Siberian air to mP which is moistened and warmed from the Japanese “Gulf Stream Current” • Major type for storms to affect N. California and the Pacific NW • Responsible for fueling “Nor-easters”

  15. Tropical (T) • Continental Tropical (cT) • Hot, Dry • Source: Deserts of Mexico and the SW United States • Very unstable because of heat and convection, but cloudless because of lack of moisture. • Marine Tropical (mT) • Warm, Humid • Source: Tropical and subtropical oceans and the Gulf of Mexico

  16. United States Air Masses

  17. Example Air Masses cP mT

  18. Air Mass Invasion

  19. Air Mass Modification • Air masses eventually move • If it moves over a region different from where it originated, the air mass will be modified, by the land that the air is travelling over. • Changes: warming, cooling, adding or reducing moisture content

  20. Air Mass Modification cP The cP air mass will be warmed by the warmer land that it passes over. Warmer Land

  21. Air Mass Modification mP cP • Originates as cP air from Asia and is carried across the Pacific becoming mP

  22. Lake Effect Snow

  23. Fronts • Fronts • Narrow transition zone between air masses of differing densities. • The density differences usually arise from temperature differences. • Density differences may be a result of humidity differences (summer). • A front is the boundary or transition zone between different air masses.

  24. Frontal Symbols

  25. Cold Front • Cold Front • Boundary with a colder (more dense) airmass advances and displaces the warmer (less dense) air. • The largest temperature differences are normally associated with cold fronts. • Average speed ≈ 30 mph • Temperatures drop rapidly

  26. Cold Front

  27. Cold Front • Precipitation: Located on either side of the front. • Convective, showery in nature

  28. Warm Front • Warm Front • Colder (more dense) air retreats and is replaced by the warmer (less dense) air. • Warm fronts tend to have weaker temperature gradients. • Average speed ≈ 16 mph • Temperatures slowly rise

  29. Warm Front

  30. Warm Front • Lifted warm air produces widespread clouds and precipitation well in advance of boundary

  31. Occluded Front • Cold fronts typically move faster than warm fronts. • Cold fronts can catch up and “overtake” a warm front. • Two types of occlusions: • Cold type occlusion • Warm type occlusion (very, very rare)

  32. Occluded Front

  33. Occluded Front

  34. What kind of front is it? • From the vantage point of the ground… • If warm air replaces colder air, the front is a warm front • If cold air replaces warmer air, the front is a cold front • If the front does not move, it is a stationary front • Occluded fronts do not intersect the ground; the interface between the air masses is aloft

  35. Norwegian Wave CycloneModel

  36. Wave Cyclone Formation

  37. Typical Wave Cyclone Paths

  38. Wave Cyclone Development

  39. Convergence and Divergence Low High What initiates “cyclogenesis?” When upper-level divergence is stronger than lower-level convergence, more air is taken out at the top than is brought in at the bottom. Surface pressure drops, and the low intensifies, or “deepens.” 500 mb height

  40. Generation of Divergence Aloft UPPER LEVEL DIVERGENCE INITIATES AND MAINTAINS A SURFACE LOW.

  41. Formation of Cyclones • Cyclogenesis – Development of a region of low pressure -- a cyclone. • Conditions: • Cyclonic flow must be established at the surface. • Cyclonic flow is CCW in the Northern Hemisphere. • Convergence at the surface must be supported by divergence aloft.

  42. Shortwave Propagation

  43. Cyclone Stages

  44. Wave Cyclone Development cP Cloud “Shield” The cyclone matures “Comma” shape is characteristic of a well developed wave cyclone. L mT

  45. Wave Cyclone Development The cyclone occludes Cold front overtakes warm front. The cold air surrounds the cyclone. Gradients weaken and the low slowly dies. L cP mT

  46. Mid-Latitude Cyclone

  47. El Niño, La Niña and Other Climate Variables