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ABNORMAL PSYCH. Rate on a scale 1  5. 1 = most abnormal…. 5 = least abnormal A. Woman exercises 3 times a day B. Man stands in street & directs traffic away from demons C. PMS D. 1 st cousins fall in love E. woman cooks baby & feeds it to husband. ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR ANXIETY DISORDERS

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ABNORMAL PSYCH


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rate on a scale 1 5
Rate on a scale 1  5
  • 1 = most abnormal…. 5 = least abnormal
  • A. Woman exercises 3 times a day
  • B. Man stands in street & directs traffic away from demons
  • C. PMS
  • D. 1st cousins fall in love
  • E. woman cooks baby & feeds it to husband
slide3

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR

  • ANXIETY DISORDERS
  • SOMATOFORM
  • DISSOCIATIVE
  • MOOD
  • PERSONALITY
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA
what s abnormal
WHAT’S ‘ABNORMAL’?
  • 1) UNUSUALNESS
  • 2) SOCIAL DEVIANCE (situational)
  • 3) EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
  • 4) MALADAPTIVE
  • 5) DANGEROUS
  • 6) FAULTY PERCEPTIONS or INTERPRETATIONS OF REALITY (hallucinations &/or delusions)
what are psych disorders
WHAT ARE PSYCH. DISORDERS?
  • Behavior, thoughts, & emotions must be:
  • 1) personal distress
  • 2) impaired functioning
  • 3) prolonged
  • Involve disturbances in
    • Behavior -- Perceptions
    • Thinking -- Emotions
slide7

PREVALENCE

    • 50% of U.S. adults will develop
    • 30% of U.S. adults currently suffering
cultural bases
CULTURAL BASES
  • Must take cultural context into acct when making judgments about abnormal behavior!
  • Abnormal behavior patterns can be expressed in diff’t ways in diff’t cultures
    • ex. depression China vs. depression U.S.
  • Culture-bound syndromes: psych. disorders found in only 1 or a few cultures
    • ex. Dhat Syndrome
causes of psych disorders
CAUSES OF PSYCH DISORDERS
  • MODEL
    • Way of explaining abnormal behavior patterns or mental disorders
  • BIOLOGICAL
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL
  • SOCIOCULTURAL
  • BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL
dsm iv
DSM IV
  • Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(4th ed.) of the APA
  • Objective & consistent way to diagnose
  • Classifies psych. disorders into categories
    • distinctive features or symptoms
slide11

Discover connections among disorders

  • ppl can experience symptoms from several disorders
  • All known disorders

usually fit into a

diagnostic

category

    • Major grouping
influences of receiving a dsm label
INFLUENCES OF RECEIVING A DSM ‘LABEL’

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

  • Reduce sense of responsibility
  • Affects how other ppl treat or think about them
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Links ppl to resources
  • live a better life
  • Not the only one suffering
  • Can treat it
anxiety disorders
ANXIETY DISORDERS
  • Conditions in which fear, caution, worry,
  • nervousness
  • becomes very intense and long-lasting
slide14

Most common type of mental disorders

  • Life consumed by inappropriate fears
  • Difficulty forming stable & satisfying relationships
  • Self-defeating & ineffective prob. solving
  • Expressed in constant worrying, mood swings, physical symptoms (sweating, headaches, etc)
  • Avoid dealing w/ probs.
  • Sense of personal inadequacy
generalized anxiety disorder
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
  • Free floating anxiety
    • Can’t explain
  • Shakiness, fidgeting, inability to relax
  • Can’t deal w/ relationships & responsibilities b/c preoccupied w/ worry
phobic disorders
PHOBIC DISORDERS
  • Severe anxiety is focused
  • Specific phobias – narrow focus on 1 thing
  • Social phobias – fear of embarrassment/ judgment in a social setting
    • Eating in public, mtg. strangers, etc.
  • Agoraphobia
    • Extreme fear of going into a public place
panic disorder
PANIC DISORDER
  • Sudden episodes of panic attacks
  • Panic
    • overwhelming feeling of helplessness, terror, doom
  • Symptoms
    • sense of smothering, chocking, shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pains, nausea, pounding of heart, fear of losing control
  • constant fear of having a panic attack
slide18
OCD
  • Obsession – nagging, intrusive thoughts
  • Compulsion – repetitive behavior(s) or rituals to deal w/ obsessive thoughts
  • Why dev? Serve as distractions from real fears
  • ppl w/ OCD realize thoughts/actions are irrational but feel helpless to stop it
  • Trichtolillomania
somatoform disorders
SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
  • Real or imagined physical symptoms
    • no physical cause
  • Cause rooted in psych. probs
conversion disorder
CONVERSION DISORDER
  • REAL change or loss of a physical function
  • emotional difficulties  voluntary body function
    • speech, movement, feeling/sensation, sight
  • Calmness & lack of concern
hypochondriasis
HYPOCHONDRIASIS
  • Person whose in good health becomes preoccupied w/ imaginary ailments
  • Excessive concern that physical complaints are signs of an underlying serious illness; look for signs
  • Look for ‘signs’; misinterpret minor probs
  • Cont. to believe a disease/malfunction exists even when medical exams are always negative!
dissociative disorders
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
  • Alterations or loss in memory, identity, or consciousness
  • Separate themselves from stressful events by selectively forgetting them
dissociative identity disorder
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER
  • 2 or more distinct identities exist w/in the same person (original ‘shatters’)
    • Each has memories, & own patterns of thinking &

behaving

    • Each has

characteristics

of original identity

slide24

Result of individual’s effort to escape from a part of the self or reality

    • usually suffered from severe abuse
  • Secret ‘self’ emerges in form of separate identity(s)
    • Don’t know about each other
  • Women average 15; men average 8
schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • Severe & chronic disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, & behavior
slide26

Psychotic disorder

    • confuses reality vs. fantasy (?)
    • Hallucinations & delusions
  • Exhibit bizarre behavior, incoherent speech, & illogical thinking
  • mental processes aren’t integrated
    • Ex. thoughts & feelings
slide27

1/100 people in world

  • No ‘cure’… but effective treatments
    • 50% do not respond to treatment
  • Tends to dev. in adolescence or early adulthood
  • Causes: genetic tendencies; biochemical imbalances in the brain (esp. dopamine); abnormal structure & function of the brain (pruning?); stressful life experiences
slide28

SYMPTOMS

  • 1) Abnormal perceptions
    • Hallucinations
    • Detachment
      • outside looking in @ environs
    • Emotional expressions are exaggerated or inappropriate
slide29

2) Disorganized thoughts

    • absence of logical connections btw thoughts
    • Inappropriate or chaotic associations
      • ‘word salad’ – very chaotic patterns
  • Dear Sirs: Pertaining to our continuing failure to prosecute violations of minor’s rights to sovereign equality which are occurring in gestations being compromised by the ingestation of controlled substances… the skewing of androgyny which continues in female juveniles even after separation from their mother’s has occurred, and as a means of promulflagitating my paying Governor Hickel of Alaska fro my employees to have persona services endorsements and controlled substance endorsements, … the Iraqi oil being released by the United Nations being identified as Kurdistanian oil, and the July 1991 issue of the Siberian Review spells Eltsin’s name without a letter y.
slide30

3) Disturbed thoughts

    • Persecution
      • someone/thing plotting against them
    • Grandeur
      • inflated worth or power
    • Thought broadcasting
      • thoughts can be heard by others
    • Thought stealing or insertion
      • others are preventing or ‘stealing’ their thoughts; other ppl’s thoughts are appearing in their mind
slide32

SUBTYPES

  • Disorganized –confused behavior, incoherent speech, vivid/frequent hallucinations, delusions
    • Nonsensical talk, inappropriate behavior, neglect hygiene, probs. Relating to others
slide33

Paranoid – characterized by delusional thinking & frequent auditory hallucinations

    • Most common subtype
    • Grandeur, persecution, jealousy
slide34

Catatonic – bizarre mvmt, posture, or facial expressions

    • Motionless or hold unusual, fixed postures for extended periods of time
    • don’t respond to environ. during ‘episodes’ (mute)
personality disorders
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
  • Life-long patterns that are disturbing/

unsatisfying

slide38

Self-defeating personality patterns

    • Maladaptive or inflexible ways to dealing w/ others & environs
  • SYMPTOMS
    • 1) unable to est. & keep meaningful relationships
    • 2) unable to assume social responsibilities
    • 3) unable to adapt to social environ.
anxious fearful
ANXIOUS-FEARFUL
  • DEPENDENT
    • Helplessness; can’t make own decisions
    • Excessive need to be taken care of
    • Submissive & clingy behavior
  • AVOIDANT
    • avoid all social interaction for fear of being ridiculed, humiliated, or disliked; feel sense of alienation; oversensitive to criticism
dramatic erratic
DRAMATIC-ERRATIC
  • HISTRIONIC
    • Excessively displays emotion & seeks attn.
  • NARCISSISTIC
    • Arrogantly overestimate abilities & achievements; entitled to special treatment
  • BORDERLINE
    • Lack of stability in relationships; self-esteem; emotional outburst; impulsive; suicidal threats; fear of abandonment; most common
slide41
ANTI-SOCIAL

Most serious when it comes to public safety

Persistent disregard for & violation of other’s rights

People & objects = tools for gratification

Impulsive; no shame, guilt, anxiety, or remorse

Get away w/destructive behavior; arrogant ‘con’

Well-liked, intelligent, entertaining, manipulative, fake emotions

Genetics & lack of/inconsistent discipline

odd eccentric
ODD-ECCENTRIC
  • SCHIZOID
    • No interest in being social; emot. ‘cold’
  • PARANOID
    • Distrusts others; everyone has evil motives
  • SCHIZOTYPAL
    • Feels intense discomfort in relationships; delusions, ‘magical’ behavior/thinking… odd & disorganized thinking patterns
      • Wants to be social!
mood disorders
MOOD DISORDERS
  • Severe or persistent disturbances of mood
  • limit ability to function effectively & interact w/ others
  • helplessness to change it
bipolar disorders
BIPOLAR DISORDERS
  • alternate btw moods of mania & depression
  • Excessive/inappropriate happy or unhappy
    • period of ‘normalcy’ in btw (?)
  • Manic episode
    • Euphoria, confusion, distracted, racing thoughts, exaggerated self-esteem & invulnerability, high E, restlessness
      • Reckless behavior, talkative, flight of ideas, delusions, risky behavior
slide45

Depressive episode

    • feelings of failure,

worthlessness,

hopelessness,

paranoia,

sinfulness, &

despair

  • 3% of U.S. adults
  • Genetics (?)
depression
DEPRESSION
  • Adjustment Disorder
  • Child
  • SAD
  • Post-

partum

slide47

MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

    • Persistent period of downcast mood
    • Symptoms – inability to concentrate, changes in sleep /appetite, lethargy, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, loss of interest in pleasure activities, apathy, suicidal thoughts, inability to adjust, internalizing failures, anxiety
slide48

Most common mood disorder

      • 10% – 25% of women
      • 5% – 12% of men
  • Completed suicide occurs w/ 15% of ppl w/ severe MDD
  • 2/3 episodes end w/ complete recovery
  • Silent suffering!
suicide
SUICIDE
  • NOT A DISORDER!
  • Not all people who commit suicide are depressed
  • Why?
    • Escape from pain
    • end the torment of unacceptable feelings
    • punish themselves or others
slide50

Age

    • most common w/ older adults & teens
    • 3rd leading cause of death for ppl 15-24
  • Threats & attempts are serious
  • don’t want to die
  • 90% have a psych.

disorder

    • 70% that succeed

have threatened

w/in last

3 mnths

self injury
SELF-INJURY
  • NOT A DISORDER!
  • regulate strong emotions

(baseline)

  • distraction
  • Compensate for lack of

control

  • express things that can’t

be put into words

slide52

Manipulate other ppl

  • Delusion (prevent something worse from happening)
  • History of abuse
  • tending to wounds = care & soothing
    • never learned how to in a direct way
eating disorders
EATING DISORDERS
  • Unhealthy eating patterns
  • Preoccupation w/ body-image (distorted)
  • depression, anxiety, mood swings, irritability
anorexia nervosa
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
  • Self-starvation
  • refuse to maintain a healthy body weight
    • intense fear of gaining weight
  • Unrealistic perception of the shape/size of body
  • Serious medical

complications

  • Problems w/

restrain

& control

bulimia nervosa
BULIMIA NERVOSA
  • Episodes of binge eating are followed by purging the food from the body
    • Private: Vomit, laxative,

exercise, dieting, fasting

  • keep healthy

body weight

  • Obsessed w/ weight;

constant self-evaluation;

distorted body image

slide56
PICA
  • persistent & compulsive cravings to eat nonfood items.
      • Feces, dirt, soap, cigarettes, paper, cotton
  • Most common in
    • childhood (20%-30%)
    • pregnant women
  • nutritional deficiencies;

neglect; food deprivation;

dev. disabilities