HOT SPOTS OF THE HIMALAYA’S Chase Upshaw, Joe Scalora, Dan Finelli, & ZinaniHarriott
Overview of the Himalayas Location- stretches through Nepal, Pakistan, Bhutan, and India (Northern Asia) Divided into two regions: Eastern Himalayas and Western Himalayas Climate • Lower Regions: usually covered in snow and temperatures are almost always below freezing • Mountain Regions: Temperatures usually range from 60oF – 90oF depending on the season Ratio of human population density to extinct species 123 : 0 Interesting fact- The Himalayas are home to the largest mountain and the highest elevation in the world, Mt. Everest.
Why are the Himalayas a Hot Spot? • The largest mountain range on Earth • Home to the largest mountain on Earth; Mt. Everest • The abrupt rise from 500 meters to over 8,000 meters results in a wide variety of species. • Home to some of the worlds tallest grasslands • Over 10,000 species of plants, almost 1,000 species of birds and 300 species of mammals
Unique Biodiversity • Plants- 10,000 species Ex. Ermaniahimalayensis(mustard plant family) 3160 species are endemic • Vertebrate- 1827 species Ex. Ophrysiasuperciliosa(quail) Pantheratigris(tiger) 150 species are endemic • Invertebrate- N/A Ex. Lumbricusterrestris(Earthworm) Number of endemic species- N/A
Human Impacts • Clearing of forests and grasslands rises as the human population rises • Forests and grasslands have been destroyed for agriculture and settlement causing massive habitat fragmentation • Habitat loss and degradation has led to no more than 25% of the original vegetation still in tact. • Poaching takes the lives of many animals for traditional Chinese medicine
Conservations • In 1928 and 1934 the first sanctuaries were established. • Many states in India became protected by the 70s and 80s. • In 1999 a survey from the WWF added 9 percent of area to the protection. • Agencies protecting the Himalayas include GEF, UNDP, EU, DANIDA, WWF, and the MacArthur Foundation.
Interrelationships & Interdependency Interrelationships- the relationships between organisms Interdependency- how organisms depend on each other There are 10,000 species of plants in the Himalayas. Since plants are producers the flow of food will continue to increase. Organisms depend on each other to survive for example food. Animals like wild dogs eat deer's and rabbits. They need those type of species to stick around so they survive and so they can increase their population. • All organisms depend on abiotic and biotic factors. • Grassland support Tigers • Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers support freshwater Gangetic dolphin • Freshwater fishes like minnows and carps, river loaches, and sisorid catfishes live in streams and high mountain lakes