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Quality. What is Quality?. Quality is never an accident, i t is always a result of intelligent effort. (John Ruskin, 19 th century painter and art critic)

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Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

What is quality
What is Quality?

  • Quality is never an accident, it is always a result of intelligent effort. (John Ruskin, 19th century painter and art critic)

  • The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. (American Society for Quality)

  • Quality is free; it is non-quality that is expensive. (Phil Crosby)

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Quality t hrough d ifferent aspects
Quality Through Different Aspects

  • User Based

    • Quality “lies in the eyes of the beholder”

    • Marketing and customer based

    • Better performance

    • Nicer features

  • Manufacturing Based

    • Meeting standards

    • Making it right the first time

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Quality through different aspects
Quality Through Different Aspects

  • Product Based

    • Quality is measurable

    • Quality is determined by precise variables

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Implications of quality
Implications of Quality

  • Company Reputation

  • Product Liability

  • Global Implications

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Cost of quality coq
Cost of Quality (COQ)

  • Cost of Quality: The cost of doing things wrong

  • Preventive Costs

    • Associated with preventing defects

  • Appraisal Costs

    • Associated with evaluation costs

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Cost of quality coq1
Cost of Quality (COQ)

  • Internal Costs

    • Associated with defects and problems before delivery

  • External Costs

    • Costs that occur after delivery

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Total quality management
Total Quality Management

  • TQM is a corporate business management philosophy which recognizes that customer needs and business goals are inseparable.

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Total quality management1
Total Quality Management

  • TQM is a management philosophy for continuously improving overall business performance based on leadership, supplier quality management, vision and plan statement, evaluation, process control and improvement, product design, quality system improvement, employee participation, recognition and reward, education and training, and customer focus.

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Deming s 14 points
Deming’s 14 Points

  • Create consistency of purpose

  • Lead to promote change

  • Build quality into the product; stop depending on inspection

  • Build long-term relationships based on performance, not price

  • Continuously improve product, quality, and service

  • Start training

  • Emphasize leadership

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Deming s 14 points1
Deming’s 14 Points

  • Drive out fear

  • Break down barriers between departments

  • Stop haranguing workers

  • Support, help, improve

  • Remove barriers to pride in work

  • Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement

  • Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Google video
Google Video

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Continuous improvement
Continuous Improvement

  • Setting the bar and then raising it

  • Zero Defects

  • Employee recognition is corner stone

  • PDCA/ Kaizen

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Video tqm in toyota
Video: TQM In Toyota

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Employee empowerment
Employee Empowerment

  • 85% of Problems are with materials and equipment

  • Involvement by those who are dealing hands on with the system

  • Delegating responsibility

  • Involving shop-floor vs. Top Down

  • Forming of teams

  • Quality Circles

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi


  • Process of evaluation via choosing the best practice in a particular activity

  • Provides a snapshot of your business and gives a relative standing

  • Benchmarking outside your industry

  • Internal benchmarking

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Steps in benchmarking
Steps in Benchmarking

  • Determine what to benchmark

  • Form a benchmark team

  • Identify benchmarking partners

  • Collect and analyze benchmarking information

  • Take action to match or exceed the benchmark

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Just in time
Just In Time

  • Cutting cost of quality

    • Inventory hides bad quality

    • Less scrap, rework, damage costs

  • Improves quality

    • Cuts lead time

    • Errors are seen early

    • Quality problems can be found both within firm and vendors

  • Less inventory ordering

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Deming s seven deadly diseases
Deming’s Seven Deadly Diseases

  • Lack of constancy of purpose.

  • Emphasis on short-term profits.

  • Evaluation by performance, merit rating, or annual review of performance.

  • Mobility of management.

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Deming s seven deadly diseases1
Deming’s Seven Deadly Diseases

  • Running a company on visible figures alone.

  • Excessive medical costs.

  • Excessive costs of warranty, fueled by lawyers who work for contingency fees.

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Tools of tqm
Tools of TQM

  • Check Sheets

    • Used for recording data

    • Help in showing patterns

  • Scatter Diagrams

    • Show relationships between two measurements

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Tools of tqm1
Tools of TQM

  • Cause and Effect Diagrams

    • Ishikawa Diagram or Fish-Bone Chart

    • Used to discover possible locations of quality problems

    • 4 Ms:

      • Material

      • Machinery

      • Manpower

      • Methods

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Tools of tqm2
Tools of TQM

  • Flowcharts

    • Graphically explain the process

  • Statistical Process Control (SPC)

    • Process used to monitor standards, make measurements and take actions to correct problems as the product is being produced

    • Uses control charts

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi

Tools of tqm3
Tools of TQM

  • Pareto Charts

    • 80/20 Rule

  • Histograms

    • Shows the range of values of a measurement and the frequency of its occurrence

    • Show frequency and variations

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi


  • Textbook: Chapter 6

  • Video: Available on site (www.ustadhali.webs.com)

Prepared By: Ali Siddiqi