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Ch4 – Features. Consider the following data from Mokilese. Can you identify complementary distribution? If so, write a rule in feature to capture the overall process (not specific rules for specific sounds but for natural classes). Ch4 – Features. Consider the following data from Mokilese.

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slide1

Ch4 – Features

Consider the following data from Mokilese

Can you identify complementary distribution?

If so, write a rule in feature to capture the overall process (not specific rules for specific sounds but for natural classes)

slide2

Ch4 – Features

Consider the following data from Mokilese

High vowels become voiceless between voiceless consonants

slide3

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • The part of the grammar that is concerned with words and word formation
  • Lexicon - your mental dictionary - the filing cabinet drawer for how words are put together and what the meanings of this different parts are
  • Word - the smallest free form found in language (it does not have to occur in fixed position with respect to other forms)
slide4

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Morpheme - the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function (builder has 2 morphemes: build and -er)
  • Simple words - contain only 1 morpheme
  • Complex words - contain more than 1 morpheme
  • Free morpheme - a morpheme that can be a word by itself
  • Bound morpheme - a morpheme that must be attached to another element
slide5

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Allomorphs - the variant forms of a morpheme
  • English indefinite article has 2 allomorphs: a and an
  • English plural has 3 allomorphs - what are they? cats, dogs, horses
slide6

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word structure
  • Root - the core of the word and carries the major component of meaning
  • Lexical category - Noun (N), Adjective (A), Verb (V), Preposition (P)
  • Affixes - general term for a morpheme that does not have a lexical category, and is always bound
  • Base is the form to which an affix is attached (most cases it is the root)
slide7

A

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix
  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)
  • kindness
  • 1) Identify the root

kindness

slide8

N

Af

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix
  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)
  • kindness
  • 2) Attach the suffix and determine lexical category of the word

A

kindness

slide9

A

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix
  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)
  • kindnesses
  • 1) Identify the root

kindnesses

slide10

N

Af

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix
  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)
  • kindness
  • 2) Attach the 1st affix and determine lexical category of the word

A

kindnesses

slide11

N

Af

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix
  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)
  • kindness
  • 3) Attach the 2nd affix to the new base and determine lexical category of the resulting word

N

A

Af

kindnesses

[[[[ kind ]A ness]N es]N

slide12

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Affixes can be suffixes, prefixes or infixes
    • Infixes must be morphemes inserted into the root of the word, and not just adding another prefix or suffix to an existing one
    • freakin’ as an infix: abso-freakin-lutely not *absolute-freakin-ly
    • a true English infix?
  • Problems: some words that have an affix no longer allow the root to be a free form - unkempt, inept, overwhelmed - any others?
  • Some words appear to have affixes but are considered one morpheme - receive, submit, permit (still formed with other affixes like they do have affixes though - permission, reception)
slide13

A

A

Af

Af

A

Af

V

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Derivation - an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from its base
  • Complex derivations - when there are multiple affixes
  • Structurally ambiguous words - unlockable

V

Af

V

unlockable

unlockable

slide14

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Constraints on derivation - suffix -ant cannot affix to native English words, only borrowed words from Latin
  • Sometimes constraint is phonological - -en can only attach as a suffix to a monosyllabic base ending in an obstruent.
slide15

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • 2 different classes of affixes:
  • Class 1 affix - triggers phonological changes in consonants or vowels of the base - stress shifts (not talking about spelling)
  • Class 2 affix - phonologically neutral, having no effect on base or stress of resulting word (not talking about spelling)
  • Usually, Class 2 affixes cannot come between Class 1 affixes and the root.
  • *fearlessity, but ok fearlessness, relational, divisiveness
slide16

Ch 5 - Morphology

On p. 110, un- is a prefix that attaches to an adjective and here it attaches to a noun

slide17

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Compounding - compound word is the combination of two already existing words
  • The right-most word determines the lexical category of the new compound word (greenhouse is a noun because house is a noun although green is an adjective) - the morpheme that determines the category is called the head
  • Spelling is not consistent with how compounds are represented - high school, high-school, highschool
  • Pronunciation differences between compound and A + N sequence - blackbird versus black bird
  • Inflectional suffixes can only be added to second form in compound (tense or plural) so drop kicked but not *dropped kick
slide18

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Inflection - the modification of a word’s form to indicate grammatical information of various sorts
  • The base that inflectional forms are added to is sometimes called a stem (like root for derivational affixation)
  • This is different from derivation
  • Includes Tense, Aspect, Number, person/number agreement, case
slide19

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • There are many irregular forms in English that don’t use the affixation of inflection as discussed. (go + PAST = goed? no, went)
  • Inflection versus Derivation
    • Inflection does not change the grammatical category or the meaning of the word to which it is affixed
    • Derivation can change the category and does change the meaning (although still related) (All English prefixes are derivation even though they do not change the lexical category of the word)
    • Derivational affixes have to occur closest to base. neighborhoods but not *neighborshood
    • Inflectional affixes can combine with nearly every possible word (plural -s) but derivational affixes can combine with a more limited set (-ment)
slide20

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Inflection versus Derivation
    • Special case of -ing: There are 3 -ing affixes!
    • 1) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Noun - I watched the dancing in the room.
    • 2) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Adjective - The dancing frog
    • 3) Inflectional: Verb + -ing = Verb - The frog is dancing
slide21

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Inflection - in English is usually marked with affixes (suffixes)
  • Can also be marked through Internal Change - a process that substitutes one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast
    • Ablaut (vowel alterations): sing, sink, drive - sang, sank, drove OR feet and geese from foot and goose - what about dive?
  • Suppletion - replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast
    • to be in English is made up of a few different forms not related to each other through affixation or internal change: is, was, were, are, am, be
slide22

INFLECTION

  • Reduplication - total or partial - the repetition of all or part of a word to indicate a grammatical or semantic contrast
  • Tone placement - different pitch to indicate different tense (Spanish has an inflectional stress to indicate tense and person - hablo versus habló)
  • Agreement – when one word is inflected to match a certain grammatical properties of another word – number, person (Eng. 3rd Sing Present –s: he speaks
  • Case - is a change in a word’s form to indicate its grammatical role (subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.)
    • He/his/him, I/mine/me

Ch 5 - Morphology

slide23

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Conversions - changing one word from one category to another without the use of affixes (zero derivation or zero affixation)
  • Also, productivity – still can write rules for non-productive morphology (like –en plural oxen)
slide26

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • In order to figure out the morphemes, must find morphological minimal pairs (2 words that differ with only 1 morpheme) then figure out what the diffs in meaning are and you can figure out the morphemes.
  • atanipenda vs. atakupenda = he will like me vs. he will like you
  • So we know that –ni- must be me (Obj) and –ku- must be you (Obj)
  • Figure out with the data that the order of the morphemes is:
  • SUBJECT + TENSE + OBJECT + ROOT
slide27

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root.

1.)Object Marking

    • X  OP + X in [+Verb]
    • Where OP is selected from:
      • ni- [+me-object]
      • ku- [+you-object]
      • m- [+him-object]
      • tu- [+us-object]
      • wa- [+them-object]
slide28

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root.

2.)Tense Marking

    • X  Tense + X in [+Verb]
    • Where TENSE is selected from:
      • ta- [+future]
      • na- [+present]
      • me- [+past]
slide29

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root.

3.)Subject Marking

    • X  SP + X in [+Verb]
    • Where SP is selected from:
      • a- [+he-subject]
      • ni- [+I-subject]
      • u- [+you-subject]
      • tu- [+we-subject]

penda root

      • nipenda Object Marking
      • tanipenda Tense Marking
      • atanipenda Subject Marking

atanipenda Output of morphology

slide30

Ch 5 - Morphology

  • Questions about morphological rules?