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Ch4 – Features

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  1. Ch4 – Features Consider the following data from Mokilese Can you identify complementary distribution? If so, write a rule in feature to capture the overall process (not specific rules for specific sounds but for natural classes)

  2. Ch4 – Features Consider the following data from Mokilese High vowels become voiceless between voiceless consonants

  3. Ch 5 - Morphology • The part of the grammar that is concerned with words and word formation • Lexicon - your mental dictionary - the filing cabinet drawer for how words are put together and what the meanings of this different parts are • Word - the smallest free form found in language (it does not have to occur in fixed position with respect to other forms)

  4. Ch 5 - Morphology • Morpheme - the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function (builder has 2 morphemes: build and -er) • Simple words - contain only 1 morpheme • Complex words - contain more than 1 morpheme • Free morpheme - a morpheme that can be a word by itself • Bound morpheme - a morpheme that must be attached to another element

  5. Ch 5 - Morphology • Allomorphs - the variant forms of a morpheme • English indefinite article has 2 allomorphs: a and an • English plural has 3 allomorphs - what are they? cats, dogs, horses


  6. Ch 5 - Morphology • Word structure • Root - the core of the word and carries the major component of meaning • Lexical category - Noun (N), Adjective (A), Verb (V), Preposition (P) • Affixes - general term for a morpheme that does not have a lexical category, and is always bound • Base is the form to which an affix is attached (most cases it is the root)

  7. A Ch 5 - Morphology • Word trees - (Af) means Affix • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not) • kindness • 1) Identify the root kindness

  8. N Af Ch 5 - Morphology • Word trees - (Af) means Affix • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not) • kindness • 2) Attach the suffix and determine lexical category of the word A kindness

  9. A Ch 5 - Morphology • Word trees - (Af) means Affix • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not) • kindnesses • 1) Identify the root kindnesses

  10. N Af Ch 5 - Morphology • Word trees - (Af) means Affix • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not) • kindness • 2) Attach the 1st affix and determine lexical category of the word A kindnesses

  11. N Af Ch 5 - Morphology • Word trees - (Af) means Affix • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not) • kindness • 3) Attach the 2nd affix to the new base and determine lexical category of the resulting word N A Af kindnesses [[[[ kind ]A ness]N es]N

  12. Ch 5 - Morphology • Affixes can be suffixes, prefixes or infixes • Infixes must be morphemes inserted into the root of the word, and not just adding another prefix or suffix to an existing one • freakin’ as an infix: abso-freakin-lutely not *absolute-freakin-ly • a true English infix? • Problems: some words that have an affix no longer allow the root to be a free form - unkempt, inept, overwhelmed - any others? • Some words appear to have affixes but are considered one morpheme - receive, submit, permit (still formed with other affixes like they do have affixes though - permission, reception)

  13. A A Af Af A Af V Ch 5 - Morphology • Derivation - an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from its base • Complex derivations - when there are multiple affixes • Structurally ambiguous words - unlockable V Af V unlockable unlockable

  14. Ch 5 - Morphology • Constraints on derivation - suffix -ant cannot affix to native English words, only borrowed words from Latin • Sometimes constraint is phonological - -en can only attach as a suffix to a monosyllabic base ending in an obstruent.

  15. Ch 5 - Morphology • 2 different classes of affixes: • Class 1 affix - triggers phonological changes in consonants or vowels of the base - stress shifts (not talking about spelling) • Class 2 affix - phonologically neutral, having no effect on base or stress of resulting word (not talking about spelling) • Usually, Class 2 affixes cannot come between Class 1 affixes and the root. • *fearlessity, but ok fearlessness, relational, divisiveness

  16. Ch 5 - Morphology On p. 110, un- is a prefix that attaches to an adjective and here it attaches to a noun

  17. Ch 5 - Morphology • Compounding - compound word is the combination of two already existing words • The right-most word determines the lexical category of the new compound word (greenhouse is a noun because house is a noun although green is an adjective) - the morpheme that determines the category is called the head • Spelling is not consistent with how compounds are represented - high school, high-school, highschool • Pronunciation differences between compound and A + N sequence - blackbird versus black bird • Inflectional suffixes can only be added to second form in compound (tense or plural) so drop kicked but not *dropped kick

  18. Ch 5 - Morphology • Inflection - the modification of a word’s form to indicate grammatical information of various sorts • The base that inflectional forms are added to is sometimes called a stem (like root for derivational affixation) • This is different from derivation • Includes Tense, Aspect, Number, person/number agreement, case

  19. Ch 5 - Morphology • There are many irregular forms in English that don’t use the affixation of inflection as discussed. (go + PAST = goed? no, went) • Inflection versus Derivation • Inflection does not change the grammatical category or the meaning of the word to which it is affixed • Derivation can change the category and does change the meaning (although still related) (All English prefixes are derivation even though they do not change the lexical category of the word) • Derivational affixes have to occur closest to base. neighborhoods but not *neighborshood • Inflectional affixes can combine with nearly every possible word (plural -s) but derivational affixes can combine with a more limited set (-ment)

  20. Ch 5 - Morphology • Inflection versus Derivation • Special case of -ing: There are 3 -ing affixes! • 1) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Noun - I watched the dancing in the room. • 2) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Adjective - The dancing frog • 3) Inflectional: Verb + -ing = Verb - The frog is dancing

  21. Ch 5 - Morphology • Inflection - in English is usually marked with affixes (suffixes) • Can also be marked through Internal Change - a process that substitutes one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast • Ablaut (vowel alterations): sing, sink, drive - sang, sank, drove OR feet and geese from foot and goose - what about dive? • Suppletion - replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast • to be in English is made up of a few different forms not related to each other through affixation or internal change: is, was, were, are, am, be

  22. INFLECTION • Reduplication - total or partial - the repetition of all or part of a word to indicate a grammatical or semantic contrast • Tone placement - different pitch to indicate different tense (Spanish has an inflectional stress to indicate tense and person - hablo versus habló) • Agreement – when one word is inflected to match a certain grammatical properties of another word – number, person (Eng. 3rd Sing Present –s: he speaks • Case - is a change in a word’s form to indicate its grammatical role (subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.) • He/his/him, I/mine/me Ch 5 - Morphology

  23. Ch 5 - Morphology • Conversions - changing one word from one category to another without the use of affixes (zero derivation or zero affixation) • Also, productivity – still can write rules for non-productive morphology (like –en plural oxen)

  24. Ch 5 - Morphology

  25. Ch 5 - Morphology

  26. Ch 5 - Morphology • In order to figure out the morphemes, must find morphological minimal pairs (2 words that differ with only 1 morpheme) then figure out what the diffs in meaning are and you can figure out the morphemes. • atanipenda vs. atakupenda = he will like me vs. he will like you • So we know that –ni- must be me (Obj) and –ku- must be you (Obj) • Figure out with the data that the order of the morphemes is: • SUBJECT + TENSE + OBJECT + ROOT

  27. Ch 5 - Morphology • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root. 1.)Object Marking • X  OP + X in [+Verb] • Where OP is selected from: • ni- [+me-object] • ku- [+you-object] • m- [+him-object] • tu- [+us-object] • wa- [+them-object]

  28. Ch 5 - Morphology • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root. 2.)Tense Marking • X  Tense + X in [+Verb] • Where TENSE is selected from: • ta- [+future] • na- [+present] • me- [+past]

  29. Ch 5 - Morphology • Morphological rules to derive the correct forms. Since there are 3 prefixes attaching to root, we start with the one closest to root. 3.)Subject Marking • X  SP + X in [+Verb] • Where SP is selected from: • a- [+he-subject] • ni- [+I-subject] • u- [+you-subject] • tu- [+we-subject] penda root • nipenda Object Marking • tanipenda Tense Marking • atanipenda Subject Marking atanipenda Output of morphology

  30. Ch 5 - Morphology • Questions about morphological rules?