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Introduction to the Methods of Teaching Career Orientation . By David Agnew Arkansas State University . Objectives. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: . List 10 methods/techniques of teaching Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

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introduction to the methods of teaching career orientation
Introduction to the Methods of Teaching Career Orientation

By David Agnew

Arkansas State University


By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • List 10 methods/techniques of teaching
  • Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.
  • Select methods/techniques appropriate for CO
your foundation
Your Foundation
  • Most of you already have a good understanding of methods of teaching.
  • Most of this is going to be review.
  • However, as we have already discussed there are some methods that are recommended for CO.
Teaching Methods: My preferred way of looking at the subject is that there are 5 or 6 different methods or grouping of methods.

There are methods and then there are techniques. The larger category is Methods. Generally a technique falls under one of the methods.

Audio visual materials then go with the lesson in support of any technique or method.

my five common methods are
My five common methods are:
  • Presentation (Lecture)
  • Job instruction (Demonstration)
    • Usually leads to a project of some kind – Sometimes referred to as the project methods
    • Also hands-on activities would fall under this category because usually the teacher gives instruction for how to complete a task or job skill from one of the clusters.
  • Teacher lead discussion
  • Supervised study --
  • Cooperative learning -- Small Group activities or projects

Remember the state department Philosophy?


Is the number way to teach

"What I hear, I forget; What I see, I remember; What I do, I understand."(Confucius, 451 B.C.).

the methods appropriate to co according to my list would be
The methods appropriate to CO according to my list would be:
  • Job instruction or demonstration– Since you will show them how to do an activity.
  • Supervised study – Since after you give them the demo you would normally expect them to give it a try.
  • It might be a cooperative learning project (group activity) with different members contributing to different parts of the activity in some way.
  • Lecture and teacher lead discussion could be used in the introduction to the activity or it could be used in the follow-up afterwards.
other approaches recommended by dwe
Other approaches recommended by DWE
  • Hands-on Activities (Not really a method itself– the implied philosophy is that the learning will result in students doing something at the end like performing an activity rather than just doing a paper and pencil test)
  • Resource Speakers (usually a presentation or teacher lead discussion)
  • Job Shadowing and Interviewing (like supervised learning and job instruction)
  • Audio/Visual Aids and Career Magazines (support or props for any method) Career Magazine might be used in supervised study.
  • Field Trips (like a presentation, just off cite and walking)
  • Student Organization Activities (not really a method)
  • Lecture Self-assessments (supervised study)
  • Career Research(supervised study)
To see other people’s list of methods go to the following websites and review the references to methods/techniques
  • Article on Methods of teaching
  • A comparison of methods

Read these before completing the Blackboard activity

remember when selecting teaching methods
Remember when Selecting Teaching Methods


Consider the Practical Requirements



Consider the Learners

Consider the Learning Objective

objectives are important to the whole process of learning
Objectives are important to the whole process of learning
  • What are the three major parts of an objective?
    • Condition– circumstances under which the student will demonstrate knowledge or skill
    • Criteria – Level of success expected
    • Behavior -- The actual knowledge skill or attitude to be assessed
  • Also note the old saying that “we teach to the objectives and we test to the objectives.”
    • T2O for short
  • Objectives are just as important in testing/assessment as in planning for instruction.
  • There are three types of instructional content found in objectives according to Bloom. These are called domains.
    • Cognitive– Thinking, problem solving, involves the brain
    • Psychomotor – the doing, performing of a physical task
    • Affective -- Involves feelings, attitudes and values
remember even selecting the right method is not enough
Remember even selecting the right method is not enough…

You are the means of implementing the method or technique.

Much of the weigh of success is on your shoulders.

teaching or facilitation skills
Teaching or Facilitation Skills








Four Basic Skills

Teaching or Facilitation Skills are the bridge between the content and learners

attending skills behaviors
Attending Skills/Behaviors

There are four attending behaviors to consider:

1. Face the learners.

2. Maintain appropriate eye contact.

3. Move toward the learners.

4. Avoid distracting behaviors.

observation skills steps
Observation Skills Steps


Take appropriate action.



Try to determine the person’s feelings.

Look at person’s face, body position, and body movements.

Remember you need to “Monitor and Adjust”

listening skills
Listening Skills

Listening involves two key steps:

1. Listening to the words being expressed.

2. Paraphrasing what was said to demonstrate understanding.

step 1 listen to the words
Step 1: Listen to the Words

There are major roadblocks to this step:

  • Internal distractions.
  • External distractions.
step 2 paraphrase
Step 2: Paraphrase

Paraphrasing requires you to verbally interact. The interaction is either to...

  • Get additional information.
  • Verify what you think was said.
questioning skills
Questioning Skills

There are three skills associated with the questioning process:

1. Asking questions.

2. Handling answers to questions.

3. Responding to questions.

questioning skills asking questions
Questioning Skills: Asking Questions

1. Two Basic Types:

- Closed -- one short and right answer

- Open – maybe not one answer and one that leads to more discussion

2. Phrasing: The way it is worded is important. consider restating and clarifying when needed

3. Directing: who gets to answer?

- Group

- Individual

questioning skills handling answers
Questioning Skills: Handling Answers

Maximum learning


maximum participation.

Good Questions Promote Participation

questioning skills responding to questions
Questioning Skills: Responding to Questions
  • Confirm an answer – Always reinforce a right answer and be gentle in dealing with wrong answers.
  • Provide the answer yourself.
  • Redirect the question to a learner.
  • Defer the question.

Acceptable ways to respond: