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Groups and phrases. Lecture 10. Groups and phrases. Word Word is the rank between group/phrase and morpheme Word classes (Halliday p 214). Groups and Phrases. " nominals in a nominal group serve to construe participants, to enact persons and to present referents"

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Groups and phrases

Lecture 10

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Groups and phrases

  • Word

  • Word is the rank between group/phrase and morpheme

  • Word classes (Halliday p 214)

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Groups and Phrases

  • "nominals in a nominal group serve to construe participants, to enact persons and to present referents"

  • Prepositions serve as Minor-processes in prepositional phrases, with a nominal group (complex) as Complement/Range; the phrase forms a kind of mini-clause.

  • Prepositions may be simple (e.g., at, on, in, over), sometimes of verbal origin (indicating their affinity with verbs, e.g. regarding, following, using), or complex (e.g., on top of, according to, because of).

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Groups and phrases

  • Groups (expansion of a word)

  • Group is the rank between clause and word.

  • A group is composed of words

  • a group of words = a word complex

  • Words enter into logical structure to form a group.

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Groups and phrases

  • The structure of groups is that of Head and modifier(s).

  • A very hard-working student from London

  • Has been walking

  • bigger than any other houses

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Groups and phrases

  • Nominal group (noun group) adjective group)

  • [The suit] is definitely [the universal business outfit for [men]]. There is [nothing else that [men] like to wear when [they]'re doing [business]]. [I] don't know why [it] projects [this image of [power]]. Why is it [intimidating]? "[We]'d better do what [this guy] says, [his pants] match [his jacket]."

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Groups and phrases

  • Verbal group

  • Men love the suit so much, we've actually styled our pajamas to look like a tiny suit. Our pajamas have little lapels, little cuffs, simulated breast pocket. Do you need a breast pocket on your pajamas? You put a pen in there, you roll over in the middle of the night, you kill yourself.

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Groups and phrases

  • conjunction group

  • examples: even if, not until, if only, as soon as

  • preposition group (modifier + head)

  • right behind (the door), not without (regret), all along (the route), way off (the mark)

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Groups and phrases

  • Phrase

  • Like groups, phrases are the rank between clauses and words.

  • like miniature clauses

  • Whereas the group is an expansion of a word, a phrase is a contraction of a clause (Halliday p 180)

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Groups and phrases

  • Prepositional phrase

  • Preposition + nominal groupWhy do people who work in offices have pictures of their familyon their desk facing them?To me a lawyer is basically the person that knows the rules of the country.

  • I could enjoy a career in law enforcement.

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Groups and phrases

  • The Rank Scale

  • A hierarchy of units such as clause - group/phrase - word – morpheme

  • tone group - foot - syllable - phoneme. 

  • The rank scale determines the basic realization patterns. Functions of the units at one rank are realized by units at the rank below.

  • For example, clause functions are realized by groups/phrases and group functions are realized by words.

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Groups and phrases

  • Rankshift

  • The process whereby a unit of one rank is moved down the rank scale to serve as if it were a unit of a lower rank as an element within another unit.E.g. clause as part of group

  • nothing else that men like to wear

  • the right to remain silent

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Groups and phrases

  • group as part of phrase

  • in the middle of the night

  • phrase as part of group

  • the middle of the night

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Groups and phrases

  • Group complexes

  • paratactic (co-ordinated): The absent Paul, haunting her with letters and telephone bells and imagined footsteps on the stairs had begun to be the greater torment.His eyes were very pale and snake-like.

  • Each time a bucket is passed from hand to hand, a little water is spilt.

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  • Complex verbal groups

  • Beer seems such a simple drink that we tend to take it for granted.

  • Dora stopped telling Paul everything she did during the day.

  • Now we began to see the importance of his research.

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Thank You

End of Lecture 10