Chapter 21. THE HIGH TIDE OF IMPERIALISM. The Spread of Colonial Rule. Q: What were the causes of the new imperialism of the nineteenth century, and how did it differ from European expansion in earlier periods?. Motives for Colonialism. Economic Raw materials Oil, tin, rubber New markets
Chapter 21 THE HIGH TIDE OF IMPERIALISM
The Spread of Colonial Rule • Q: What were the causes of the new imperialism of the nineteenth century, and how did it differ from European expansion in earlier periods?
Motives for Colonialism • Economic • Raw materials • Oil, tin, rubber • New markets • Needed to absorb manufactured goods
Imperialism • Process of western economic expansion in Asia and Africa • efforts of western capitalist states to seize markets, cheap raw materials, and lucrative avenues for investment
Voices of Imperialism • John A Hobson, Imperialism: A Study in 1902, • modern imperialism was a direct consequence of the modern industrial economy • wealth, national status, and political power went hand in hand with possession of a colonial empire.
Voices of Imperialism • French politician, Jules Ferry, 1885 • expressed the relationship between colonialism and national survival: • a policy of containment or abstinence would set France on the broad road to decadence and initiate its decline into a 3rd or 4th rate power. • theory of Social Darwinism • in the struggle between nations only the fit will survive.
Voices of Imperialism • British professor of Math, Karl Pearson • “the path of progress is strewn with the wrecks of nation; traces are everywhere to be seen of the [slaughtered remains] of inferior races….yet these dead people are, in very truth, the stepping stones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.”
Voices of Imperialism • Moral Arguments • Promote Christianity • Build a better world. • Cecil Rhodes, • purpose was to extend the British empire on “which the sun never set.”
Colonial Rivalry • Colonial rivalry • scramble to acquire new territories in Asia and Africa, primary motive, economic • Africa • British engaged in a struggle with rivals to protect their interests in the Suez canal and Red Sea • Southeast Asia • US seized the Philippines from Spain and to keep them from the Japanese • Indochina • The French took over in competition with Germany, Japan or the US would usurp that territory
Scramble Complete • By 1900 all societies of Africa and Asia were under full colonial rule or on the verge of collapse as was the case with China and the Ottoman empire. • Exceptions: • Japan, East Asia, Thailand, Afghanistan, Persia, Ethiopia in East Africa.
The Colonial System • Q: What types of administrative systems d the various colonial powers establish in their colonies, and how did these systems reflect the general philosophy of colonialism?
Indirect Rule • Cooperating with local elites • Purchased loyalty • Economic rewards for cooperation • Confirming them in positions of authority and status in an new colonial setting. • In parts of Africa and Indian subcontinent, • the Malay peninsula • Countries that were most effective in resisting included those who had along tradition of national cohesion and independence: • Burma, Vietnam, African Muslim states such as Nigeria and Morocco.
Direct Rule • Directly imposed or replaced indigenous government, institutions • Re-organized social, political, economic and often, gender relationships • Response to resistance efforts • Policies designed to eradicate source of resistance • Destroy sources of tradition
Philosophy of Colonialism • “Might makes it right” • pseudoscientific validation from the concept of Social Darwinism • “White mans burden” • Moral justification: • bringing the benefits of western democracy, capitalism, and Christianity to the tradition-ridden societies of Africa and Asia, • (civilizing mission)
Association • The French adopted the terms association & assimilation: • Association: • implied collaboration with the local elites while leaving local traditions alone
Assimilation • Assimilation • Implies an effort to transform colonial societies in the western image • French approached colonization both ways
India Under the British Raj • Q: What were some of the major consequences of British rule in India, and how did they affect the Indian peoples?
British India, 1800 • Empire of the Muhgals colonized • British sought to consolidate their control over Indian and expand into the interior • Direct Rule • East India company • Later by the British crown • Indirect Rule • through their local Maharajas and rajas.
company’s resident dominating a procession in Tanjore in 1825, while the Indian ruler, Sarabhoji, follows like an obedient shadow The East Indian Co. Resident and His Puppet © Art Media, Victoria and Albert Museum, London/HIP/The Image Works
Colonial ReformsBenefits • British government brought order and stability to a society rent by civil war and • Benefits • Increase in access to education • Girls had some increase access – wifely duties, • Sati outlawed of Sati • widows allowed to remarry legally • new infrastructure of railroads and telegraph, postal service, health and sanitation improved.
Costs of Colonialism • High price for stability • Economic costs: hardship to the majority of millions of people • Introduction of British textiles put thousands of Bengali women out of work and severely damaged the local textile industry
Costs of Colonialism • British introduced the Zamindar system: • To facilitate the collection of agricultural taxes and create a new landed gentry who could become the conservative foundation of British rule. • local gentry increased the tax burden on peasants and forced many to become tenants or lose their land entirely. • Rebellion led to new legislation protecting farmers from eviction and unreasonable rent increases as a concession
India Under British Rule, 1805–1931 This map shows the different forms of rule that the British applied in India under their control.
The Cost of Colonialism • Economic costs • Limited industrialization, • remiss in bringing the benefits of modern science and technology • Psychological impact: • British arrogance, contempt and discrimination • cut deeply into the pride of many Indians, especially those of high caste
Colonial regimes in SE Asia • Q: Which western countries were most active in seeking colonial possessions in Southeast Asia, and what were their motives in doing so?
Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia • 1800 only two societies were under colonial rule • Spanish Philippines • Dutch East Indies • 1900 the entire area colonized by the west
The Effects of Dutch Colonialism in Java Dutch administration buildings in Batavia © William J. Duiker
Singapore and Malaya • “Opportunity in the Orient” • 1819 Stamford Raffles founded British colony in Singapore • Strategic shipping port in the region
Government Hill in Singapore Strait of Malacca, an important commercial seaport in Asia. © British Library/HIP/Art Resource, NY
Colonial Southeast Asia British Burma Malacca French Vietnam Laos Cambodia American Philippines
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Administration and Education • Slow to adopt democratic institutions • Albert Sarraut advised patience in in awaiting the full benefits colonial policy • I will treat you like my younger brothers, but do not forget that I am the older brother. I will slowly give you the dignity of humanity • Slow to adopt educational reforms • French officials in Vietnam voiced opposition to expanding education • Educating the natives meant not “one coolie less but one rebel more
Cultural Influences—East and West © Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Economic Development • Exploitation of raw materials • Burma: Teakwood • Malaya: Rubber and Tin • East Indies: spices, tea, coffee, palm oil • Philippines: sugar, copra (coconut flesh) • Limited industrialization • Industrialization to meet needs of European elite and local elites • Most industrial and commercial establishments, banking, & trade, owned and managed by Europeans
The Nature of Colonial Rule • Colonialism and the Countryside • Majority of people agrarian • Subsistence agriculture • Plantation agriculture • European Rubber & Tea Plantations • Workers “Shanghaied” • English term , practice of recruiting laborers, often from the docks and streets of Shanghai: use of force, drugs or alcohol
The Production of Rubber European Cash Crop of Asia Slave wages. © William J. Duiker
The Production of Rubber .latex sheets © William J. Duiker
Empire Building in Africa • Q: What factors were behind the “Scramble for Africa” and what impact did it have on the continent?
18thC Africa • 18th C interest limited to the coast and the slave trade • Indirect rule or influence through African rulers and merchant intermediaries • Factors that limited expansion • Disease • malaria • Political instability • Lack of transportation
Domestic Slaves, Zanzibar, 1890 Slave trade in decline: growing outrage among humanitarians in European countries over human trafficking & increase in price coupled with decrease in demand © Bojan Brecelj/CORBIS
Decline of Slave Trade • Dutch ceased the trafficking by1795, Danes in 1803, • Britain & America declared it illegal in 1808 • By 1815 only Portugal and Spain were legally active. • By the 1880s the institution was abolished in all major countries in the world. • It was finally abolished in America by 1863 and in Cuba and brazil 17 years later
Empire Building in AfricaInformal Empire • The Growing European Presence in • West Africa • Emergence of European educated elite class of Africans who were then employed by Europeans • Christianizing • African social splits • Tensions with African government • British: Gold Coast, Sierra Leone • America: Liberia • French: Senegal River near Cape Verde • Peanut plantations
Imperialist Shadow over the Nile • Historical interest in building a canal between the Mediterranean and Red Sea • Turks, 16th C • King Louis of France, 17th C • Napolean,1798 toppled the Mamluk regime in Cairo • British restored the Mamluk Muhammad Ali, Ottoman officer seized control for 30 years • Ferdinand de Lesseps,1854, signed a contract to have the canal completed by 1869
The Suez Canal • French Egypt • Project indebted the government • Dependent on foreign aid • Revolt against foreign influence led Britain to step in and protect its investments (1875 shares) • Established an informal protectorate until WWI
The Opening of the Suez Canal, 1869 Continues to be Egypt’s greatest revenue producer © Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY
British Control of Egypt & Sudan • Great Britain’s interest in region strategic • Suez Canal shortened distance between Europe & Asia • Designed by a French engineer & built by an international company • Opened in 1869 • Far flung empire & trading network, Britain had the greatest interest in its control • 1875 Britain acquired control when the ruler of Egypt sold his shares in the company to British government to avoid bankruptcy • 1882 British advisors supervised all important Egyptian government offices & became real rulers of the country • Technically or nominally remained a province of the Ottoman Empire
Suez Canal, 1869 • Canal opened • Europeans directly controlled only a scattering of outposts • African Coast • Algeria • North Africa • Southern Tip of Africa
Sudan • Egypt claimed authority over Sudan • Sudan controlled the water supply of the Nile River • Sudanese resented Egyptian control • Revolted in 1883 under the Mahdi (Rightly Guided One) the leader of the Nationalist movement • 1896 – 1898 General Sir Herbert Kitchener undertook recon quest of Sudan
French Conquest & Settlement of Northwest Africa • 1830 – 1869 France conquered Algeria • Used as a base for further advances into the Sahara • 1881 Made Tunisia a protectorate (in spite of Italy’s claim) • Expanded west into Morocco
French Empire • Encouraged re-settlement, unlike Britain in Egypt • Algeria – French dispossessed people of best land • 1911 population 5.6 million, 752,000 were European • Tunisia 130,000 Europeans • Friction between wealthy white minority & Arab Majority • Muslims treated like a conquered people
White Privilege • French settlers or Colons had representation in the legislature in metropolitan France • Muslims had no representation • The Arab must accept the fate of the conquered, he must either become assimilated to our civilization or disappear. European civilization can have no sympathy for the life of a savage