Spanish Armada American History Mrs. Cady
Review • In the late 1400’s many countries began to explore. • They included Portugal, Spain, France, and England. • Exploration could lead to new wealth. • Under the idea of mercantilism, the more wealth a country possesses the more power it could gain. • The power struggle for North America existed between France, Spain, and England.
King Philip II of Spain The Key Players… • Wanted England to be a Catholic country. • Angry at execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. • Decided to invade England. • Ordered a huge fleet of ships (ARMADA) to be built.
Queen Elizabeth I of England The Key Players… • Determined that England would remain a Protestant country. • Ordered English ships to attack Spanish ships and take their cargo.
Sir Francis Drake of England The Key Players… • Very successful sailor. • Made the first English voyage around the world. • Robbed and destroyed the Spanish ships. • Knighted on return.
Sir Frances Drake Cont…. • As a sailor, Drake's successful battles against the Spanish helped England become very powerful. • TheSpanish had conquered much of central and South America by 1550. • Their ships carried back large amounts of gold and silver to Spain. • Drake’s ships would attack these treasure ships and steal their goods. • Drake's ships captured a huge amount of gold and silver on their trip around the world. When he returned home in 1580, he was knighted. What was left?
The Causes of Invasion… • Many attacks on the Spanish at sea by the English. • Queen Elizabeth sent reinforcements to help the Dutch fight the Spanish. • Mary, Queen of Scots, is executed –she is next in line to the throne and a Catholic. • The Pope agrees that Spain can attack England to restore the Catholic Church. • Philip II of Spain was angry that Queen Elizabeth had not punished Sir Francis Drake for attacking Spanish ships.
The road to invasion…. • Spain: • Spain had a huge fleet, or armada, of 130 ships, which were mostly traditional galleons. These ships had a combined purpose of carrying cargo and soldiers. They were large, slow, and difficult to steer, but they were strong. The armada was controlled by soldiers, not sailors. • England: • Without the burden of having to pay for a war, England became prosperous and in 1568 Elizabeth used money to increase the size of the navy. The new ships that were built were faster and easier to steer than before. The navy ships were controlled by sailors, not soldiers.
The armada would sail through the English Channel to Spanish Netherlands. • From there, they would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. • The plan was to invade England restore it to the Catholic religion. The Invasion…..
July 21,1588 Armada leaves Spain to sail up the English Channel, where an army to invade England is to be waiting.
July 30,1588 • Armada enters English Channel, where they are surprised to find the main English fleet. The Armada adopts a crescent battle formation. After delays, caused by tides and wind, the English fleet sails to meet it.
July 31st - August 1st 1588 English ships attack outermost Spanish vessels with long-range gunfire. Nothing is sunk but San Salvador explodes. Overnight, Drake breaks the line to capture the Spanish ship Rosario. English fleet regroups; The Spanish Armada consolidates the Armada's crescent formation and sends message out to rendezvous at Calais.
August 2, 1588 • The Armada reaches Portland Bill. English and Spanish ships engage in fierce battles. English ships fire heavily on Spanish but do little damage. Their ammunition runs low.
August 3-6 1588 The fleet therefore sailed on to Calais (France) to meet an Spanish army that was supposed to help join the fight. The Armada drops anchors off Calais but discovers the invading army is not ready. Many of the Armada's Captains wanted to just go ashore and attack England by land, but Spain’s orders strictly forbade this.
You are England • The Spanish Armada is waiting in the English Channel for army troops to arrive so they can attack you as soon as possible. • They are weak with injured troops and low supplies, but they are keeping their formation close to the shore • You have a smaller fleet (only sailors, not soldiers), but your ships are much faster and easier to steer.
What is your plan? • If you try to invade, they will see you coming and attack • You decide you must do something to stop the Spanish Armada before they regain their strength and attack your fleet. • With your group, make a plan of attack.
August 7-8 1588 • At midnight, England sent eight fire ships, covered in tar, into the congested Spanish ranks. • Many Spanish Captains cut their cables, which attached the boats together, in an attempt to escape the flames. • They blundered away from the blaze straight into the gunfire of the waiting English. • Unfortunately for the Spanish, their fire power was vastly inferior to that of the English. • A change of wind blew the Armada North out of the range of English fire.
August 13, 1588 After being exhausted by English ships and battered by storms, the Armada sails north, intending to round the coast of Scotland and sail south to Spain. Conditions on board the ships are poor.
August 24, 1588 Storms scattered the Armada off the north coast of Scotland.
September - October Fierce storms drive many ships towards the Irish coast. More than 25 ships are wrecked and thousands of crew drown, or are killed by English soldiers when they reach shore. About two-thirds of the Armada eventually escapes bad weather and sail home to Spain.
The Result of the Invasion… • The Armada is famous because at that time England was a small nation with a small navy and they were facing the greatest power in the world (Spain). They defeated Spain, with help from a storm. • It marked the beginning of England's mastery of the seas. The great history of the English navy began, as did serious English exploration and colonization. • The defeat of the Spanish Armada marked the rise of England and the fall of Spain in race for ownership of North America.
Let’s not forget…. • The Spanish had already conquered much of central and South America, which remained in their possession.
Final thought….. • Although the war between England and Spain continued until 1604, the defeat of the Armada marked the end of Spanish control of the seas, leaving open the opportunity for England to start colonies in North America.