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The Spanish Armada and The Thirty Years’ War. Two seemingly unrelated events. Mary, Queen of Scots. Eldest daughter of Henry VIII’s older sister, Catholic, raised in France John Knox, unrest in Scotland Married Henry Stuart, Lord of Darnley, both Catholic

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mary queen of scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
  • Eldest daughter of Henry VIII’s older sister, Catholic, raised in France
  • John Knox, unrest in Scotland
  • Married Henry Stuart, Lord of Darnley, both Catholic
  • Darnley had her secretary Rizzio killed
  • Darnley killed, Mary and her friend Earl of Bothwell suspected
  • Mary marries Bothwell in Protestant service
  • In battle, Mary taken prisoner and given to Elizabeth
  • Mary spent years under house arrest in England
  • The Casket Letters
  • Elizabeth kept spies on her
  • 1587 - executed
why would philip ii attack england
Why would Philip II attack England?
  • Spanish Netherlands
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Elizabeth I had Mary, Queen of Scots executed
  • Protestant vs. Catholic monarchs
problems with the plan
Problems with the plan
  • No suitable port in Spanish Netherlands to pick up reinforcements
  • Duke of Medina was not an admiral
  • 1587 - Drake attacked Cadiz before Armada set sail
  • Elizabeth’s Tilbury Speech
tilbury speech
Tilbury Speech
  • My loving peopleWe have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live and die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust.I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field.I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you on a word of a prince, they shall be duly paid. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over these enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.

Giambelli’s Hell Burners

  • Storm
  • The Irish
  • Scurvy
  • Starvation
  • 67/130
  • 20,000 versus 100 (7,000)
british colonies vs spanish colonies
British Colonies vs. Spanish Colonies
  • 13 American colonies
  • Belize
  • Canada
  • Bahamas, Barbados, Jamaica
  • Falkland Islands
  • Sudan, Kenya, Egypt
  • South Africa, Zimbabwe
  • Hong Kong
  • Australia, New Zealand, India
  • Central America
  • Cuba, Puerto Rico
  • South America (not Brazil)
  • Philippines
the thirty years war 1618 1648
The Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648

Traditional side

Reformation side



The Danes

The Dutch

Protestant Union under Frederick V of the Palitanate (HRE)

German states rebelling against Hapsburgs

Mainly Protestants

  • Hapsburgs of Austria – Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III
  • Philip IV of Spain
  • Maximilian I of Bavaria (HRE)
  • German states loyal to Hapsburgs
  • Mainly Catholics, continuation of Counter-Reformation
  • Church property
defenestration of prague
Defenestration of Prague
  • Ferdinand’s predecessor Rudolf was pro-Protestant who had set up a Prot. Church in Bohemia that self-governed
  • Ferdinand dissolved it and took back lands
  • Catholic regents met dissolved assembly in Prague
  • They left through the window
bohemian phase 1618 1621
Bohemian Phase, 1618-1621
  • Bohemians revolted against Hapsburgs (Ferdinand II)
  • Crowned Frederick V of the Palatinate as their king
  • Ferdinand fights back with help of Spain and Lutheran Saxony
  • Bohemians defeated near Prague at White Mountain
  • Spain gains land along Rhine River
palatinate phase 1621 1624
Palatinate Phase, 1621-1624
  • The Palatinate sought to regain Rhine lands lost to Spain
  • Dutch eager to help
  • Protestants fail utterly
  • Unsuccessful attempts to woo James VI into the fray
danish phase 1625 1630
Danish Phase, 1625-1630
  • French, English and Dutch form alliance led by Christian IV of Denmark
  • Defeated by Catholic League led by Bohemian condotierre Wallenstein
  • Edict of Restitution
  • Territorial rulers ask emperor to remove Wallenstein from power
swedish phase 1630 1634
Swedish Phase, 1630-1634
  • GustavusAdolphus of Sweden invades Germany, supplied by France
  • He defeats imperial army at Breitenfeld
  • Emperor recalls Wallenstein who meets Adolphus at Lutzen
  • Battle is a draw, Adolphus killed
  • Spain and Hapsburgs join and annihilate Swedes at Nordlingen
  • Swedes lose all the territories they had gained
  • Wallenstein later murdered
french phase 1634 1648
French Phase, 1634-1648

Final phase

Peace of Westphalia

France gets Alsace

Swedes get cash and Bremen and Verdun

HRE very limited control over German states, lands remained secular

Catholic church still strong in Bohemia and Austria

Dutch independence from Spain

  • German territories finally made peace with HRE (Peace of Prague)
  • France declares war on HRE with help of Swedes