Chapter 1 Communication a)-c). Outline the need for communication systems within multicellular organisms, with reference to the need to respond to changes in the internal and external environment and to coordinate the activities of different organs.
Outline the need for communication systems within multicellular organisms, with reference to the need to respond to changes in the internal and external environment and to coordinate the activities of different organs.
State that cells need to communicate with each other by a process called cell signalling.
State that neuronal and hormonal systems are examples of cell signalling.
A chemical secreted by an endocrine gland which brings about a response in an organ elsewhere in the body
Eg: in plants = plant growth regulators such as auxin
A group of axons and dendrons from many neurones surrounded by a protective covering. Transfers an electrical signal/impulse to the synapse
Communication between one cell and another – it can be by chemical or electrical signal!
The binding of extracellular signal molecules to either cell-surface receptors or intracellular receptors.
Most signal molecules are hydrophilic and are therefore unable to cross the plasma membrane directly; instead, they bind to cell-surface receptors, which in turn generate one or more signals inside the target cell.
Some small signal molecules, by contrast, diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to receptors inside the target cell either in the cytosol or in the nucleus (as shown here). Many of these small signal molecules are hydrophobic and nearly insoluble in aqueous solutions; they are therefore transported in the bloodstream and other extracellular fluids after binding to carrier proteins, from which they dissociate before entering the target cell.
Summarise the main similarities and differences between the two types of cell signalling: hormonal and nervous
Flight or fight response:
(or on Youtube)
In single cells – chemotaxis of single cells …
Eg: Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA; ‘auxin’)
Synthesised in the growing tips of roots and shoots
Transported cell-to-cell (and a small amount in phloem) to the rest of the plant
Involvement in growth upwards of a plant – APICAL DOMINANCE
Auxin is synthesised in the apical bud
When a plant has an active growing point at its apex (top) this tends to stop lateral buds (at the side of the stem) from growing – the plant grows UP rather than OUT
If you cut off the top of a plant is cut off then the lateral buds start to grow – so the apex is DOMINANT (hence apical dominance)
Scientists think that auxin is transported down to the apical buds and is found at a concentration that inhibits their growth. Removal of the apical bud causes auxin concentration to drop – although the evidence is contradictory …
…perhaps other plant growth hormones are also involved!
Read all about Slime mould on Text Book p.1
Slime mould time lapse movie