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MGMT Chuck Williams. Chapter 15 Managing Communication. Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. What Is Communication?. After reading these sections, you should be able to:. explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems.
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MGMT Chuck Williams Chapter 15Managing Communication Designed & Prepared byB-books, Ltd.
What Is Communication? After reading these sections, you should be able to: • explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems. • describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations.
Basic Perception Process Perception Problems Perceptions of Others Self-Perception Perception and Communication Problems 1
Perception The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments. Perception Filters The personality-, psychology-, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli. Basic Perception Process 1.1
Stimulus Stimulus Stimulus Filter Perceptual Attention Filter Perceptual Organization Perceptual Interpretation Filter Perceptual Retention Filter Basic Perception Process 1.1
Perception Problems • Selective perception • notice and accept stimuli which are consistent with our values and beliefs • ignore inconsistent stimuli • Closure • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing • we assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know 1.2
Perception of Others • Attribution Theory • we have a need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior • General reasons to explain behavior • Internal attribution • the behavior was voluntary or under their control • External attribution • the behavior was involuntary and beyond their control 1.3
Defensive Bias The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who ishaving difficulty. FundamentalAttributionError The tendency to ignore external causesof behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes. Attribution Bias and Error 1.3
Self-Serving Bias The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes). Self-Perception 1.4
CommunicationProcess FormalCommunicationChannels NonverbalCommunication InformalCommunicationChannels Coaching and Counseling Kinds of Communication 2
The Interpersonal Communication Process Sender Receiver Message that was Understood Message to be Conveyed Feedback to Sender N o i s e N o i s e N o i s e N o i s e Decode Message Encode Message Receive Message Transmit Message Communication Channel 2.1
The Communication Process Noise occurs if: • The sender is unsure what message to communicate • The message is not clearly encoded • The wrong channel is chosen • The message is improperly decoded • The receiver lacks experience or time 2.1
The Communication Process Meanings of the Word Fine • Penalty • Excellence • Tight • Small • Pure • Flimsy • Okay 2.1
Formal Communication Channels The system of formal communication channels includes: • Downward communication • top down • Upward communication • bottom up • Horizontal • within a level 2.2
Improving Formal Communication • Decrease reliance on downward communication • Increase chances for upward communication • Encourage much greater use of horizontal communication • Be aware of communication problems 2.2
Sending too many messages • Issuing contradictory messages • Hurriedly communicating vague, unclear messages • Issuing messages indicating management’s low regard for lower-level workers Downward • Risk of telling upper management about problems • Managers reacting angrily and defensively to problems • Few opportunities for workers to contact upper levels of management Upward • Management discouraging or punishing horizontal communication • Managers and workers not given time or opportunity for horizontal communication • Not enough opportunities or channels for lower-level workers to engage in horizontal communication Horizontal Common Problems with Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication 2.2
Informal Communication Channels • Transmitting messages outside the formal communication channels • The Grapevine • Highly accurate • information is timely • senders seek feedback • accuracy can be verified 2.3
Beyond the Book Informal Communication Channels
Managing Organizational Grapevines • Don’t withhold information from it • Don’t punish those who use it • Embrace the grapevine and keep employees informed • Use it as a source of information 2.3
Dealing with Internet Gripe Sites 1. Correct misinformation 2. Don’t take angry comments personally 3. Give your name and contact number 4. Hold a town meeting to discuss issues 5. Set up anonymous discussion forums Informal Communication Channels 2.3
Coaching and Counseling • Coaching • communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s performance • Counseling • communicating with someone about non-job related issues • issues may be affecting a person’s performance 2.4
Counseling Financial Services Child Care Employee Assistance Programs Pet Care Senior Care Health Lifestyles Legal Services Employee Assistance Programs 2.4
Beyond the Book Onsite Health Care • Employees are bearing an increasing share of their employee-sponsored health care, an average of $1,806, or 22% of their premium, in 2008. • Some companies, however, are sponsoring on-site health care facilities where employees can be seen for check-ups, prescription drugs, and primary care without missing much work. • Andrew Gold, executive director of benefits planning at Pitney Bowes, says that the company saves $1 in health care costs and gains $1 in productivity for every $1 spent on the in-house clinic. Source: M. P. McQueen, “Workers Get Health Care at the Office,” The Wall Street Journal, 18 November 2008, D1.
Nonverbal Communication • Any communication that doesn’t involve words • Kinesics • movements of the body and face • Paralanguage • the pitch, tone, rate, volume, and speaking pattern of a person’s voice 2.5
How to Improve Communication After reading these sections, you should be able to: • explain how managers can manage effectiveone-on-one communication. • describe how managers can manage effectiveorganization-wide communication.
How to Improve Communication Choosing the Right Communication Medium Being a good listener Giving effective feedback 3
Communication Medium • The method used to deliver an oral orwritten message. • Oral communication • Written communication Choosing the Right Communication Medium 3.1
Listening Active Listening Hearing versus Listening Empathetic Listening 3.2
Becoming an Active Listener • Clarify responses • Ask questions to clear up ambiguities • Paraphrase responses • Restate the speaker’s comments in your own words • Summarize responses • Review the speaker’s main points 3.2
Becoming an Empathetic Listener • Show your desire to understand • Listen first • Talk about what’s important to the other • Reflect feelings • Focus on the emotional part of the message • More than just restating words 3.2
Responses • Could you explain that again? • I don’t understand what you mean. • I’m confused. Would you run through that again? • I’m not sure how …. Clarifying • If I understand you correctly …. • So your perspective is that …. • In other words …. • Tell me if I’m wrong, but what you’re saying is …. Paraphrasing • Let me summarize …. • Okay, your main concerns are …. • Thus far, you’ve discussed …. • To recap what you’ve said …. Summarizing Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing 3.2
Giving Feedback Two types of feedback: Constructive Destructive 3.3
Making Feedback Constructive • Give immediate feedback • Don’t delay feedback • Discuss performance while the memory is vivid • Make feedback specific • Focus on definite behavior and time-frame • Make sure behavior was controllable • Make feedback problem-oriented • Focus on behavior not personality 3.3
Beyond the Book Improving Cross-Cultural Communication 1. Familiarize yourself with a culture’s work norms 2. Know whether a culture is emotionally affective or neutral 3. Understand terms and attitudes toward time
Beyond the Book A Comparison of French and American Views of Work
Beyond the Book Affective and Neutral Cultures In Affective Cultures, People… • Reveal thoughts and feelings through verbal and nonverbal communication • Express and show feelings of tension • Let their emotions flow easily, intensely, and without inhibition • Admire heated, animated, and intense expressions of emotion • Are used to touching, gesturing, and showing strong emotions through facial expressions • Make statements with emotion
Beyond the Book Affective and Neutral Cultures In Neutral Cultures, People… • Don’t reveal what they are thinking or feeling • Hide tension and only show it accidentally in face or posture • Suppress emotions, leading to occasional “explosions” • Admire remaining cool, calm, and relaxed • Resist touching, gesturing, and strong emotions through facial expressions • Often make statements in an unexpressive manner
Beyond the Book Monochronic Cultures People in Monochronic Cultures… • Do one thing at a time • Concentrate on the job • Take time commitments seriously • Are committed to the job • Adhere religiously to plans • Show respect for private property • Emphasize promptness • Are accustomed to short-term relationships
Beyond the Book Polychronic Cultures People in Polychronic Cultures… • Do many things at once • Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions • Meet time commitments only if possible without extreme measures • Are committed to people • Change plans easily and often • Are more concerned with relationships than with privacy • Frequently borrow and lend things • Vary promptness by the relationship • Tend to build lifetime relationships
Beyond the Book Cross-Cultural Temporal Concepts • Appointment time • how punctual you must be • Schedule time • time when projects should be completed • Discussion time • how much time should be spentin discussions • Acquaintance time • how much small-talk is required
Managing Organization-Wide Communication Improving Transmission:Getting theMessage Out Improving Reception 4
Improving Transmission email online discussion forums televised / videotapedspeeches and conferences corporate talk shows broadcast voice mail Getting the Message Out 4.1
Beyond the Book Email Ettiquette • E-mail is the vehicle for any number of communication faux pas: being abusive, “cc”ing the wrong people, discussing sensitive topics. • How to use it well? (1) Think about tone and don’t respond when you’re angry. (2) Send only to the appropriate people. (3) Assume anyone can read what you write. (4) Review what you wrote before you send. Source: G. A. Olson, “E-Mails are Forever,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 December 2008.
KnowledgeAudit Online Directory DiscussionGroups onInternet RewardInformationSharing Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Establishing Online Discussion Forums 4.1
Improving Reception • Company hotlines • Survey feedback • Informal meetings • Surprise visits • Blogs 4.2