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MGMT3 Chuck Williams. Chapter 15 Managing Communication. Designed & Prepared by B-books, Ltd. What Is Communication?. After reading these sections, you should be able to:. explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems.

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chapter 15 managing communication

MGMT3

Chuck Williams

Chapter 15Managing Communication

Designed & Prepared byB-books, Ltd.

what is communication
What Is Communication?

After reading these sections, you should be able to:

  • explain the role that perception plays in communication and communication problems.
  • describe the communication process and the various kinds of communication in organizations.
perception and communication problems

Basic Perception

Process

Perception

Problems

Perceptions

of Others

Self-Perception

Perception and Communication Problems

1

basic perception process

Perception

The process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.

Perception Filters

The personality-, psychology-, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli.

Basic Perception Process

1.1

basic perception process1

Stimulus

Stimulus

Stimulus

Filter

Perceptual

Attention

Filter

Perceptual

Organization

Perceptual

Interpretation

Filter

Perceptual

Retention

Filter

Basic Perception Process

1.1

perception problems
Perception Problems
  • Selective perception
    • notice and accept objects which are consistent with our values and beliefs
    • ignore inconsistent information
  • Closure
    • tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing
    • we assume that what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know

1.2

perception of others
Perception of Others
  • Attribution Theory
    • we have a need to understand and explain the causes of other people’s behavior
  • General reasons to explain behavior
    • Internal attribution
      • the behavior was voluntary or under their control
    • External attribution
      • the behavior was involuntary and beyond their control

1.3

attribution bias and error

Defensive

Bias

The tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who ishaving difficulty or trouble.

FundamentalAttributionError

The tendency to ignore external causesof behavior and to attribute other people’s actions to internal causes.

Attribution Bias and Error

1.3

self perception
Self-Perception

Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).

© iStockphoto.com

1.4

kinds of communication

CommunicationProcess

FormalCommunicationChannels

NonverbalCommunication

InformalCommunicationChannels

Coaching and Counseling

Kinds of Communication

2

the interpersonal communication process
The Interpersonal Communication Process

2.1

© Burke/Triolo Productions/Brand X Pictures/Jupiterimages / © TongRo Image Stock/Jupiterimages

the communication process
The Communication Process

Noise occurs if:

  • The sender is unsure what message to communicate
  • The message is not clearly encoded
  • The wrong channel is chosen
  • The message is improperly decoded
  • The receiver lacks experience or time

2.1

the communication process1
The Communication Process

Meanings of the Word Fine

  • Penalty
  • Excellence
  • Tight
  • Small
  • Pure
  • Flimsy
  • Okay

2.1

formal communication channels
Formal Communication Channels

The system of formal communication channels includes:

  • Downward communication
    • top down
  • Upward communication
    • bottom up
  • Horizontal
    • within a level

2.2

improving communication at goldman sachs

Beyond the Book

Improving Communication at Goldman Sachs

In the midst of increasing market turmoil and intense scrutiny from the government and the press, Lloyd C. Blankfein, CEO of Goldman Sachs, made it a priority to keep communication flowing throughout the firm. At times when things seemed uncertain or particularly stressful, Blankfein would send out company-wide emails, sometimes every day, to help fill everyone in. He also made himself available, walking throughout the offices to get a feel for what was happening and to answer questions that people might have. Blankfein doesn’t just rely on pep-talks either; he makes a point of being honest about challenging situations and taking the time to determine and communicate strategy.

Source: L. C. Blankfein, “Corner Office: Lessons Learned at Goldman”, interview by A. Bryant, The New York Times, 12 September 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/13/business/13corner.html?pagewanted=1 (accessed 10/23/2009).

improving formal communication
Improving Formal Communication
  • Decrease reliance on downward communication
  • Increase chances for upward communication
  • Encourage much greater use of horizontal communication
  • Be aware of communication problems

2.2

common problems with downward upward and horizontal communication

Sending too many messages

  • Issuing contradictory messages
  • Hurriedly communicating vague, unclear messages
  • Issuing messages indicating management’s low regard for lower-level workers

Downward

  • Risk of telling upper management about problems
  • Managers reacting angrily and defensively to problems
  • Few opportunities for workers to contact upper levels of management

Upward

  • Management discouraging or punishing horizontal communication
  • Managers and workers not given time or opportunity for horizontal communication
  • Not enough opportunities or channels for lower-level workers to engage in horizontal communication

Horizontal

Common Problems with Downward, Upward, and Horizontal Communication

2.2

informal communication channels
Informal Communication Channels
  • Transmitting messages outside the formal communication channels
  • The Grapevine
  • Highly accurate
    • information is timely
    • senders seek feedback
    • accuracy can be verified

2.3

managing organizational grapevines
Managing Organizational Grapevines
  • Don’t withhold information from it
  • Don’t punish those who use it
  • Embrace the grapevine and keep employees informed
  • Use it as a source of information

2.3

informal communication channels2

Dealing with Internet Gripe Sites

1. Correct misinformation

2. Don’t take angry comments personally

3. Give your name and contact number

4. Hold a town meeting to discuss issues

5. Set up anonymous discussion forums

Informal Communication Channels

2.3

coaching and counseling
Coaching and Counseling
  • Coaching
    • communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person’s on-the-job performance or behavior
  • Counseling
    • communicating with someone about non-job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with a person’s performance

2.4

employee assistance programs

Counseling

Financial

Services

Child Care

Employee

Assistance

Programs

Pet Care

Senior Care

Health

Lifestyles

Legal

Services

Employee Assistance Programs

2.4

nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication
  • Any communication that doesn’t involve words
  • Kinesics
    • movements of the body and face
  • Paralanguage
    • the pitch, tone, rate, volume, and speaking pattern of a person’s voice

2.5

sending the right message

Beyond the Book

Sending the Right Message

Deborah Dunsire, president and CEO of Millenium: The Takeda Oncology Company, knows that nonverbal communication can be especially important to executives. Employees will take a lot away from people in senior leadership; if managers aren’t careful, however, they might end up unconsciously sending the wrong signals. Dunsire has learned to be more verbal and proactive with the messages she is sending, so that employees don’t draw incorrect conclusions about the business and make decisions based on those assumptions.

Source: D. Dunsire, “Corner Office: Stepping Out of the Sandbox”, interview by A. Bryant, The New York Times, 29 August 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/30/business/30corner.html (accessed 10/30/2009).

how to improve communication
How to Improve Communication

After reading these sections, you should be able to:

  • explain how managers can manage one-on-one communication effectively.
  • describe how managers can manage organization-wide communication effectively.
how to improve communication1
How to Improve Communication

Choosing the Right Communication Medium

Being a good listener

Giving effective feedback

3

choosing the right communication medium

Communication Medium

  • The method used to deliver an oral orwritten message.
  • Oral communication
  • Written communication
Choosing the Right Communication Medium

3.1

listening
Listening

Active

Listening

Hearing

versus

Listening

Empathetic

Listening

3.2

becoming an active listener
Becoming an Active Listener
  • Clarify responses
    • Ask questions to clear up ambiguities
  • Paraphrase responses
    • Restate the speaker’s comments in your own words
  • Summarize responses
    • Review the speaker’s main points

3.2

becoming an empathetic listener
Becoming an Empathetic Listener
  • Show your desire to understand
    • Listen first
    • Talk about what’s important to the other
  • Reflect feelings
    • Focus on the emotional part of the message
    • More than just restating words

3.2

clarifying paraphrasing and summarizing

Responses

  • Could you explain that again?
  • I don’t understand what you mean.
  • I’m confused. Would you run through that again?
  • I’m not sure how ….

Clarifying

  • If I understand you correctly ….
  • So your perspective is that ….
  • In other words ….
  • Tell me if I’m wrong, but what you’re saying is ….

Paraphrasing

  • Let me summarize ….
  • Okay, your main concerns are ….
  • Thus far, you’ve discussed ….
  • To recap what you’ve said ….

Summarizing

Clarifying, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing

3.2

giving feedback
Giving Feedback

Two types of feedback:

Constructive

Destructive

3.3

making feedback constructive
Making Feedback Constructive
  • Give immediate feedback
    • Don’t delay feedback
    • Discuss performance while the memory is vivid
  • Make feedback specific
    • Focus on definite behavior and time-frame
    • Make sure behavior was controllable
  • Make feedback problem-oriented
    • Focus on behavior not personality

3.3

annual reviews six months too late

Beyond the Book

Annual Reviews Six Months too Late

One of the difficulties with annual reviews, says Yahoo CEO Carol Bartz, is that the feedback often is not immediate. Bartz says, “I have the puppy theory. When the puppy pees on the carpet, you say something right then because you don’t say six months later, ‘Remember that say, January 12, when you peed on the carpet?’ That doesn’t make any sense.”

Source: C. Bartz, “Corner Office: Imagining a World Without Annual Reviews”, interview by A. Bryant, The New York Times, 17 October 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/18/business/18corner.html?ref=business (accessed 10/23/2009).

improving cross cultural communication

Beyond the Book

Improving Cross-Cultural Communication

1. Familiarize yourself with a culture’s work norms

2. Know whether a culture is emotionally affective or neutral

3. Understand terms and attitudes toward time

affective and neutral cultures

Beyond the Book

Affective and Neutral Cultures

In Affective Cultures, People…

  • Reveal thoughts and feelings through verbal and nonverbal communication
  • Express and show feelings of tension
  • Let their emotions flow easily, intensely, and without inhibition
  • Admire heated, animated, and intense expressions of emotion
  • Are used to touching, gesturing, and showing strong emotions through facial expressions
  • Make statements with emotion
affective and neutral cultures1

Beyond the Book

Affective and Neutral Cultures

In Neutral Cultures, People…

  • Don’t reveal what they are thinking or feeling
  • Hide tension and only show it accidentally in face or posture
  • Suppress emotions, leading to occasional “explosions”
  • Admire remaining cool, calm, and relaxed
  • Resist touching, gesturing, and strong emotions through facial expressions
  • Often make statements in an unexpressive manner
monochronic cultures

Beyond the Book

Monochronic Cultures

People in Monochronic Cultures…

  • Do one thing at a time
  • Concentrate on the job
  • Take time commitments seriously
  • Are committed to the job
  • Adhere religiously to plans
  • Show respect for private property
  • Emphasize promptness
  • Are accustomed to short-term relationships
polychronic cultures

Beyond the Book

Polychronic Cultures

People in Polychronic Cultures…

  • Do many things at once
  • Are highly distractible and subject to interruptions
  • Meet time commitments only if possible without extreme measures
  • Are committed to people
  • Change plans easily and often
  • Are more concerned with relationships than with privacy
  • Frequently borrow and lend things
  • Vary promptness by the relationship
  • Tend to build lifetime relationships
cross cultural temporal concepts

Beyond the Book

Cross-Cultural Temporal Concepts
  • Appointment time
    • how punctual you must be
  • Schedule time
    • time when projects should be completed
  • Discussion time
    • how much time should be spentin discussions
  • Acquaintance time
    • how much small-talk is required
managing organization wide communication
Managing Organization-Wide Communication

Improving

Transmission:Getting theMessage Out

Improving

Reception

4

improving transmission
Improving Transmission

email

collaborative discussion sites

televised / videotapedspeeches and conferences

voice mail

broadcast voice mail

Getting the Message Out

4.1

email ettiquette

Beyond the Book

Email Ettiquette
  • E-mail is the vehicle for any number of communication faux pas: being abusive, “cc”ing the wrong people, discussing sensitive topics.
  • How to use it well? (1) Think about tone and don’t respond when you’re angry. (2) Send only to the appropriate people. (3) Assume anyone can read what you write. (4) Review what you wrote before you send.

Source: G. A. Olson, “E-Mails are Forever,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, 15 December 2008.

establishing collaborative discussion sites

KnowledgeAudit

Online

Directory

DiscussionGroups onInternet

RewardInformationSharing

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Establishing Collaborative Discussion Sites

4.1

improving reception
Improving Reception
  • Company hotlines
  • Survey feedback
  • Informal meetings
  • Surprise visits
  • Blogs

© iStockphoto.com/Amanda Rohde

4.2