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I N T E R V I E W I N G Principles and Practices Twelfth Edition. Charles J. Stewart Purdue University William B. Cash Achievement Unlimited National Louis University. An Introduction to Interviewing. Slide 2. CHAPTER. 1. Chapter Summary. An Introduction to Interviewing

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i n t e r v i e w i n g principles and practices twelfth edition

I N T E R V I E W I N GPrinciples and PracticesTwelfth Edition

Charles J. Stewart

Purdue University

William B. Cash

Achievement Unlimited

National Louis University

an introduction to interviewing
An Introduction to Interviewing

Slide 2

CHAPTER

1

  • Chapter Summary
  • An Introduction to Interviewing
  • The Essential Elements of Interviews
  • A Relational Form of Communication
  • Electronic Interviews
  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

introduction
Introduction

Slide 3

  • Interviews share characteristics with intimate interactions, social conversations, small groups, and presentations, but are significantly different.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

introduction4
Introduction

Slide 4

  • Interviews share characteristics with intimate interactions, social conversations, small groups, and presentations, but are significantly different.
  • Interviews are distinguishable from other forms of interpersonal communication, and can be viewed as a relational form of communication.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 5

  • The Five Elements of Interviews
  • Interactional

An interview is interactional because there is an exchanging, or sharing, of roles, responsibilities, feelings, beliefs, motives, and information.

Continued…

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews6
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 6

  • Interactional
  • Roles may switch from moment to moment.
  • It takes two to make an interview a success.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews7
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 7

  • Interactional
  • Roles may switch from moment to moment.
  • It takes two to make an interview a success.
  • Disclosure is essential in interviews.
  • All interviews involve risk.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews8
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 8

  • Process
  • An interview is a complex, ever-changing process.
  • No interview occurs in a vacuum.
  • Once initiated, the interview is an ongoing process.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews9
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 9

  • Parties
  • A dyadic process involves two parties.
  • If more than two parties are involved, a small group interaction may be occurring, but not an interview.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews10
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 10

  • Purpose
  • All interviews have a degree of structure.
  • An interview is a conversation and much more.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the essential elements of interviews11
The Essential Elements of Interviews

Slide 11

  • Questions
  • All interviews involve questions and answers.
  • Questions play multiple roles in interviews.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 12

  • The concept of relationship is inherent in the definition of “interviewing”
  • Each interview contributes to a relational history
  • Interviews with no prior history may be difficult “precisely because we don’t know the rules and so we don’t know exactly how to coordinate our conversational moves.”

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication13
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 13

  • Stereotypes often play significant negative roles in interactions between strangers, since the parties have exchanged little personal information.
  • Relationships change over time and during interactions.
  • The situation may alter a relationship.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication14
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 14

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication15
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 15

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

Similarity

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication16
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 16

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

Similarity

2. Inclusion/Involvement

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication17
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 17

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

Similarity

2. Inclusion/Involvement

3. Affection

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication18
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 18

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

Similarity

2. Inclusion/Involvement

3. Affection

4. Control

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication19
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 19

  • Relational Dimensions

The five dimensions that determine the nature of our relationships in the interview process:

Similarity

2. Inclusion/Involvement

3. Affection

4. Control

5. Trust

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication20
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 20

  • Global Relationships
  • Our social and work worlds have become global.
  • We must understand cultures to live and work in the 21st Century.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

a relational form of communication21
A Relational Form of Communication

Slide 21

  • Men and Women in Relationships
  • Men and women communicate differently.
  • Women use communication as a primary way of establishing relationships.
  • Men communicate “to exert control, preserve independence, and enhance status.”

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

electronic interviews
Electronic Interviews

Slide 22

  • The Telephone
  • The telephone interview is convenient and inexpensive.
  • Interviewers and interviewees can talk to several people at one time, answer or clarify questions directly, and receive immediate feedback.
  • A major drawback with telephone interviews is the lack of “presence” of parties.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

electronic interviews23
Electronic Interviews

The Cellular Telephone

  • Cellular Telephones Have Created a Whole New World of Talking
  • Their Usage Has Created a New Concern for Privacy

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

electronic interviews24
Electronic Interviews

Videoconferencing

  • Eight of Ten Companies Use Them for Recruiting Interviews
  • Visual Cues Are Limited to Upper-Body Ones
  • Videoconference Interviews Provide Less Nonverbal Information
  • Interviewees Do Not Prefer Videoconference Interviews

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

electronic interviews25
Electronic Interviews

Slide 25

  • The Internet
  • The internet lacks the nonverbal cues critical in interviews.
  • However, if both parties use the internet to interact in real time, it meets the definition of an interview.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

summary
Summary

Slide 26

  • Interviewing is an interactional communication between two parties, at least one of whom has a predetermined and serious purpose, that involves the asking and answering of questions.
  • We employ interviews to get and give information, to recruit, to assess performance, to persuade, to counsel, and receive help, and to provide quality healthcare.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

chapter 2 an interpersonal communication process
Chapter 2

An Interpersonal Communication Process

chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Two Parties in the Interview
  • Interchanging Roles During Interviews
  • Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee
  • Communication Interactions
  • Feedback
  • The Interview Situation
  • Outside Forces
  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

two parties in the interview
Two Parties in the Interview
  • The Two Parties in the Interview
    • Each party consists of unique and complex individuals.
    • Although each party consists of unique individuals, both must act together if the interview is to be successful.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

two parties in the interview30
Two Parties in the Interview

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

interchanging roles during interviews
Interchanging Roles During Interviews

Slide 31

  • Both parties speak and listen from time to time, are likely to ask and answer questions, and take on the roles of interviewer and interviewee.
  • Two fundamental approaches to interviewing: directive or nondirective.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

interchanging roles during interviews32
Interchanging Roles During Interviews

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

interchanging roles during interviews33
Interchanging Roles During Interviews
  • Directive Approach
    • A directive approach allows the interviewer to maintain control.
  • Nondirective Approach
    • A nondirective approach enables the interviewee to share control.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

interchanging roles during interviews34
Interchanging Roles During Interviews
  • Combination of Approaches
    • Be flexible and adaptable when selecting approaches.
    • The roles we play should guide but not dictate approaches.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

perceptions of interviewer and interviewee
Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee
  • Four Perceptions Drive Interactions
    • Self-perceptions
    • Perceptions of the other party
    • How the other party perceives us
    • How the other party perceives self

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

perceptions of interviewer and interviewee36
Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

perceptions of interviewer and interviewee37
Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee
  • Perceptions of Self
    • What we perceive ourselves to be may be more important than what we are.
    • We see ourselves differently under different circumstances.
    • Self-esteem is closely related to self-worth.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

perceptions of interviewer and interviewee38
Perceptions of Interviewer and Interviewee
  • Perceptions of the Other Party
    • Perceptions are a two-way process.
    • Allow interactions to alter or reinforce perceptions.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions
Communication Interactions
  • Levels of Interactions
    • Level 1 Interactions:
      • Avoid judgments, attitudes, and feelings
      • Are safe and superficial
      • Dominate interactions where there is little relational history, where trust has yet to be established, and the role relationship between superiors and subordinates.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions40
Communication Interactions
  • Levels of Interactions
    • Level 2 Interactions:
      • Require trust and risk-taking
      • More revealing of ideas, feelings, and information
      • Although riskier, can be ended easily

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions41
Communication Interactions
  • Levels of Interactions
    • Level 3 Interactions:
      • Involve full disclosure
      • Deal with intimate and controversial areas of inquiry
      • Requires a positive relationship

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions42
Communication Interactions

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions43
Communication Interactions
  • Sex, Culture, and Interactions
    • Women disclose more freely than men.
    • Culture may dictate what we disclose and to whom.
    • Positive and negative face are universal motives.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions44
Communication Interactions
  • Verbal Interactions
    • Never assume communication is taking place.
    • A word rarely has a single meaning.
    • Words may be so ambiguous that any two parties may assign very different meanings to them.
    • Beware of words that sound alike.
    • Words are rarely neutral.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

communication interactions45
Communication Interactions
  • Nonverbal Interactions
    • Nonverbal signals send many different messages.
    • Any behavioral act, or its absence, can convey a message.
    • In mixed messages, the how may overcome the what.
    • Verbal and nonverbal messages are intricately intertwined.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

feedback
Feedback
  • Be perceptive, sensitive, and receptive.
  • It is difficult to listen with your mouth open and your ears closed.
  • Be flexible in selecting listening approaches.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

feedback47
Feedback

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

feedback48
Feedback
  • Listening for Comprehension
    • The intent of listening for comprehension is to understand content.
  • Listening for Empathy
    • The intent of empathic listening is to understand the other party.
  • Listening for Evaluation
    • The intent of evaluative listening is to judge content and actions.
  • Listening for Resolution
    • The intent of dialogic listening is to resolve problems.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation
The Interview Situation

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation50
The Interview Situation
  • Initiating the Interview
    • Who initiates an interview and how may affect control, roles, and atmosphere.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation51
The Interview Situation
  • Perceptions
    • A party may see the interview as routine or an event.
    • Settings are seldom neutral.
    • Perceptions are critical in moving beyond Level 1 interactions.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation52
The Interview Situation
  • Time of Date, Week, and Year
    • Each of us has an optimum time for interactions.
    • Take into account events before and after interviews.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation53
The Interview Situation
  • Place
    • We value and protect our turf.
    • Don’t underestimate the importance of place.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation54
The Interview Situation
  • Surroundings
    • Surroundings help to create a productive climate.
    • Control noise to focus attention on the interaction.
    • Come to each interview ready to communicate.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation55
The Interview Situation
  • Territoriality
    • Maintain an arm’s length of distance between parties.
    • Relationship affects territorial comfort zones.
    • Age, sex, and culture influence territorial preferences.

Continued…

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation56
The Interview Situation
  • Territoriality
    • Seating Arrangement
      • Desire for control often determines seating.
      • Seating may equalize control and enhance the interview climate.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

the interview situation57
The Interview Situation

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

outside forces
Outside Forces
  • We are not really alone with the other party.
  • Outside forces determine roles in many interviews.
  • Know what advice you must take.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

outside forces59
Outside Forces

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

summary60
Summary
  • Interviewing is a dynamic, complicated process between two complex parties operating with imperfect verbal and nonverbal symbols guided and controlled by perceptions and the situation.
  • A thorough understanding of the process is a prerequisite for successful interviewing.
  • Interviewer and interviewee must be flexible and adaptable in choosing which approach to take.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

chapter 3 questions and their uses
Chapter 3

Questions and Their Uses

chapter summary62
Chapter Summary
  • Open and Closed Questions
  • Primary and Secondary Questions
  • Neutral and Leading Questions
  • Common Question Pitfalls
  • Summary

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

open and closed questions
Open and Closed Questions
  • Open Questions
    • Open questions are broad, often specifying only a topic, and allow the respondent considerable freedom in determining the amount and kind of information to offer.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

open and closed questions64
Open and Closed Questions
  • Open Questions
    • Highly Open Questions
    • Moderately Open Questions
    • Open Questions Have Advantages
    • Open Questions Have Disadvantages

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

open and closed questions65
Open and Closed Questions
  • Closed Questions
    • Closed questions are narrow in focus and restrict the interviewee’s freedom to determine the amount and kind of information to offer.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

open and closed questions66
Open and Closed Questions
  • Closed Questions
    • Moderately Closed Questions
    • Highly Closed Questions
    • Bipolar Questions
    • Closed Questions Have Advantages
    • Closed Questions Have Disadvantages

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

primary and secondary questions
Primary and Secondary Questions
  • Primary questions introduce topics or new areas within a topic and can stand alone even when taken out of context.
  • Secondary questions attempt to discover additional information following a primary or secondary question. They are often called probing or follow-up questions.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

primary and secondary questions68
Primary and Secondary Questions
  • Types of Secondary Questions
    • Silent Probes
    • Nudging Probes
    • Clearinghouse Probes
    • Informational Probes
    • Restatement Probes
    • Reflective Probes
    • Mirror Probes

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

primary and secondary questions69
Primary and Secondary Questions
  • Skillful Interviewing with Probing Questions
    • Skillful probing leads to insightful answers.
    • Be patient and be persistent.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

primary and secondary questions70
Primary and Secondary Questions

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

neutral and leading questions
Neutral and Leading Questions
  • Neutral questions encourage honest answers.
  • Leading questions direct interviewees to specific answers.
  • Interviewer bias leads to dictated responses.
  • Loaded questions dictate answers through language or entrapment.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

neutral and leading questions72
Neutral and Leading Questions

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

common question pitfalls
Common Question Pitfalls
  • The Bipolar Trap
  • The Open-to-Closed Switch
  • The Double-Barreled Inquisition
  • The Leading Push
  • The Guessing Game
  • The Yes (No) Response
  • The Curious Probe
  • Complexity Vs. Simplicity
  • The Quiz Show
  • The Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

summary74
Summary
  • Questions are the tools of the trade for both interviewers and interviewees.
  • Knowing question types, unique uses, and advantages and disadvantages, allows one to develop considerable interviewing skill.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.