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E N T E R I N G Our Liturgy
Table of contents The Mass as Literary Form slide 3 Proper and Ordinary slide 4 Order of Service Gathering the Community slide 5 Proclamation of the Word slide 8 Celebration of Eucharist slide 9 Comparison Rites 1, 2 and 3 slide 16 Texts of the Ordinary slide 29 The Altar slide 37
The Mass as literary form • Episcopal/Anglican – known as Holy Eucharist, Holy Communion, The Lord’s Supper, and Divine Liturgy • Catholic – known as The Mass or The Lord’s Supper • Western Rite Orthodox • Eastern Rite Orthodox – known as Divine Liturgy, Holy Qurbana, Badarak • Russian Orthodox • Lutheran – known as Divine Service
Proper and ordinary • Two types of prayers: • Propers – texts that are specific to a given Sunday, i.e. they change most every Sunday and are codified in the Episcopal Lectionary and used by all Episcopal churches around the world on the designated Sunday • Collects – other than the Collect of Purity • Preface • Readings • Ordinary – texts that remain the same each Sunday they’re done • Collect of Purity • Gloria • Kyrie (or Trisagion) • Sanctus • Agnus Dei
Episcopal order of service - 1 • Gathering of the Community • Trinitarian Greeting – in the name of Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit • Collect of Purity - the name traditionally given to the collect prayed near the beginning of the Eucharist in most Anglican rites. It was originally drafted in Latin for the Sarum missal and was part of the preparation prayers of priests before Mass. Thomas Cranmer translated the prayer into English and from there it has entered almost every Anglican prayer book in the world. • Almighty God, to you all hearts are open, all desires known, and from you no secrets are hid: cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of your Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love you, and worthily magnify your holy Name; through Christ our Lord. Amen.
Episcopal order of service - 2 • Gathering of the Community – continued • Gloria – Glory to God in the highest and peace to his people on earth… • Kyrie or Trisagion (or Agios O Theos) • Trisagion Text • Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us. • Kyrie Text • Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy. • Christ have mercy, Christ have mercy, Christ have mercy. • Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy.
Episcopal order of service - 3 • Gathering of the Community – continued • Collect of the Day - the liturgical collect is a dialog between the celebrant and the people. It follows a hymn of praise (such as the Gloria, if used) after the opening of the service, with a greeting by the celebrant "The Lord be with you", to which the people respond "And also with you" or "And with your spirit." The celebrant invites all to pray with "Let us pray". In the more ancient practice, an invitation to kneel was given, and the people spend some short time in silent prayer, after which they were invited to stand. Then, the celebrant concluded the time of prayer by "collecting" their prayers in a unified petition of a general form, referred to as a collect. Many of these still in use by churches of the West were originally composed in Latin, wherein they adhere to a flowing chanted style when they are sung.
Episcopal order of service - 4 • Proclamation of the Word – The Lessons • First Reading Old Testament • Psalm or Canticle Old Testament • Epistle New Testament • Gospel New Testament • Sermon • Creed or Credo Apostle’s Creed or Nicene Creed • Confession and Absolution
Episcopal order of service - 5 • Celebration of the Eucharist • Offertory • Eucharistic Prayer • Sursum Corda - The Sursum Corda (Latin for "Lift up your hearts") is the opening dialogue to the Preface of the Eucharistic Prayer or Anaphora in the liturgies of the Christian Church, dating back to at least the third century and the Anaphora of the Apostolic Tradition. The dialogue is recorded in the earliest liturgies of the Christian Church, and is found in all ancient rites. Though the detail varies slightly from rite to rite, the structure of the dialogue is generally threefold, comprising: (1) an exchange of formal greeting between priest and people, (2) an invitation to lift the heart to God, the people responding in agreement, and (3) an invitation to give thanks, the people answering that it is proper to do so. This third exchange indicates the people's assent to the priest continuing to offer the remainder of the Eucharistic Prayer on their behalf, and it is the necessity of such assent which accounts for the universality of the dialogue.
Episcopal order of service - 6 • Celebration of the Eucharist – continued • Preface • Sanctus and Benedictus – Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty • Words of Institution – Epiclesis or invocation – The Consecration • Doxology • Lord’s Prayer • Fraction – the breaking of the bread • Prayer of Humble Access and/or Agnus Dei • Communion • Dismissal and Blessing (Ite Missa Est)
Eucharistic Prayer A, BCP 361-363 • Opens with traditional Sursum corda and common preface from 1549. • During principal seasons of the year, a proper preface is inserted. • Preface leads to Sanctus, followed by thanksgiving for creation and the incarnation, and a statement of the human condition (“fallen into sin”). • “He stretched out his arms” – symbolic of redemption (from Hippolytus). • “…the mystery of faith…” drawn from I Tim 3:9 and used as part of the Eucharistic Prayer since the 7th century. English text by Capt. Howard E. Galley from the draft of Dr. H. Boone Porter. • “Sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving” has been part of the Anglican Prayer Books since 1549. • “Do this for the remembrance of me.” (Anamnesis - refers to a key concept in the liturgical theology: in the worship the faithful make memory of God's saving deeds.This memorial aspect is not simply a passive process but one by which the Christian can actually enter into the Paschal Mystery.) • “Sanctify them by the Holy Spirit…” (Epiclesis – calling down for the blessing of the Holy Spirit on the consubstantiated elements. • “Christ has died, Christ is risen, Christ will come again.” – memorial acclamation.
Consubstantiation Consubstantiation is a theological doctrine that (like Transubstantiation) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in concrete metaphysical terms. It holds that during the sacrament, the fundamental "substance" of the body and blood of Christ are present alongside the substance of the bread and wine, which remain present. The doctrine of consubstantiation is often held in contrast to the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Eucharistic Prayer b – BCP 367-369 • Begins with traditional Sursum corda and common preface. • Proper prefaces for seasonal times emphasize salvation history, the calling of Israel, and the incarnation of the Lord. • Followed by Sanctus and then thanksgiving for god’s goodness and love shown to creation. • Based on Eucharistic prayer of Hippolytus as drafted by Rev. Frank T. Griswold III. • Memorial acclamation (“We remember his death. We proclaim his resurrection. We await his coming in glory.”)is a literal the Eastern memorial acclamation and it constitutes an anamnesis. • The epiclesis is explicit on the gifts and subtle on the people: “…send your Holy Spirit upon these gifts that they may be the Sacrament of the Body of Christ and his Blood of the new Covenant.” • The Eucharistic Prayer B ends with an eschatological beseeching for God “to put all things in subjection under Christ.”
Eucharistic Prayer c – BCP 369-372 • Distinctive in that it contains much congregation response, more than A, B or D. • No proper preface, but a fixed preface that recites the salvation history. • Special emphasis on creation, more than any other Eucharistic Prayer in either Rite 1 or 2. • Prayer is reminiscent of the Old Testament drama of God’s continuing effort to draw us back to himself. Textual references from: Gen 26:7, Ex 3:15-16, I Chron 12:17 and 28:18, Acts 3:13, 5:30 and 7:32, and I Peter 1:3. • The epiclesis is direct: “Sanctify them by your Holy Spirit to be the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ our Lord.”
Eucharistic prayer d – bcp 372-375 • Adapted from the Liturgy of St. Basil dated to the time of Basil the Great (d. 379). • This version is used for special feast days in the Greek and Slavic churches, as well as among Coptic churches. • In 1974 American Anglican, Catholic and Protestant scholars gathered to draft a prayer for use in American churches. They studied the St. Basil version as well as the prayers of Eastern churches and adapted this version, which was also later accepted by the Inter-Lutheran Commission and the United Methodist Church. • The word of institution are distinctive: “…the bread of life and the cup of salvation, the Body and blood of your son Jesus Christ…” • The only Eucharistic Prayer of the Episcopal church that ends with a true doxology: “Through Christ, and with Christ, and in Christ, all honor and glory are yours, Almighty God and Father, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever. Amen.” • This prayer has both historical and ecumenical significance.
Comparison of rites - 10 Prayer of Humble Access (Rite 1 prayer) We do not presume to come to this thy Table, O merciful Lord, trusting in our own righteousness, but in thy manifold and great mercies. We are not worthy so much as to gather up the crumbs under thy Table. But thou art the same Lord whose property is always to have mercy. Grant us therefore, gracious Lord, so to eat the flesh of thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that we may evermore dwell in him,and he in us. Amen.
Prayer of humble access • First appeared in the Scottish Book of Common Prayer, 1637. • Origin of prayer comes from the Prayer of Worthy Reception that first appeared in the Order of Communion, 1548 and 1549. • Texts drawn from Mark 7:28, the Liturgy of St. Basil, a Gregorian collect, John 6:56, and the writing of St. Thomas Aquinas. • Came into the Anglican BCP in 1662 and was revised several times before being codified in its present state in the American BCP 1979.
Texts of the Ordinary - 1 The texts of the Ordinary of the Mass are ancient within the Christian tradition, scripturally based, and sometimes from pre-Christian tradition, especially the Jewish (Sanctus) or Orthodox (Kyrie) traditions.
Texts of the Ordinary - kyrie History: The Kyriewas first a prayer that arose in the Eastern Orthodox tradition that was repeated over and over as a mantra. It entered the Mass in the 8th century AD from the Ordo of St. Amand, which set the limit at nine repetitions. Scripture: • Old Testament: Psalms: 4:2, 6:3, 9:14, 25:11, 121:3, Is 33:2, and Tobit 8:10 • New Testament: Mt 9:27, 20:30, 15:22, Mk 10:47, and Lk 16:24 and 17:13 Etymology:The word eleison derives from the Greek eleos, meaning ‘mercy’ or ‘pity’; but this is the same root word from which the Greek word elaio, meaning ‘oil’, is derived. The Kyrie is a prayer of contrition, but is also a calling down for anointment (as with oil) from God. As we say in Psalm 23: “…you have anointed my head with oil, my cup runs over…” Metaphysical Meaning:To be anointed in the metaphysical sense represents the avenue through which the unitive God – the immanent Inner Light – can enter human consciousness.
Texts of the Ordinary - GLORIA History:Gloria in excelsis Deo is the title and beginning of a hymn known also as the Greater Doxology (as distinguished from the "Minor Doxology" or Gloria Patri) and the Angelic Hymn.It is an example of the psalmi idiotici ("private psalms", i.e. compositions by individuals in imitation of the biblical Psalter) that were popular in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Other surviving examples of this lyric poetry are the Te Deum and the Phos Hilaron. Scripture: The Gloria text is found in the Christmas story from Luke 2:14 - Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among those with whom he is pleased. Etymology: Latin Liturgical Note: In the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer of 1549, it was used in the same position it is today’s Episcopal liturgy but was later moved to the end of the service, immediately before the concluding blessing. The reason for this change was to remove the hymn from the preparation for Communion where it might suggest worship of the bread and wine rather than God himself. Revisions to the Prayer Book occurred in 1552 and 1662, but this placement was retained by the Anglican Communion until the twentieth century. The recently-created Common Worship provides two orders. In one of them, the hymn is in the earlier position.
Texts of the Ordinary - sanctus History: The Sanctus is the oldest part of the ordinary of the Mass, entering the liturgy somewhere between the 1st and 4th centuries. Scripture: The biblical origin is in Is 6:3 (And they were calling to one another: ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.’), Rev 4:8 (Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!) and Mt 21:9 (And the crowds that went before him and that followed him were shouting, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!’). The text is older still than our Christian Mass and is found in the Jewish traditions in the 3rd of the 18 Benedictions for Sabbath Amidah (Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of Hosts: The whole earth is full of His glory.) Symbolical: The Sanctus is the turning point in the poetry of the liturgy – where our Wholly [Holy] human nature transcends to the Wholly [Holy] divine. The 3-fold recitation of Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus or Holy, Holy, Holy is another encryption of the Trinity, the arcanum for the Unity of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.
Texts of the Ordinary – our father Scripture:The gospels of Matthew and Luke both record the text of the Our Father in slightly different ways. The “for thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory” text arises from Rev 4:11 (Worthy are you, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created). Metaphysical:The magnificence expressed here is so central to the very nature of the Wisdom Tradition. “Our Father who art” – God (the That Thou Art) is ours in the same way that we are ours – we are in oneness; and in the ‘who art’ we confirm our transcendent oneness with the absolute.
Texts of the Ordinary – AGNUS DEI History: The Agnus Dei was introduced into the Mass in the 7th century and is today part of the liturgy in the Anglican Communion, the Roman Rite, the Lutheran Church, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Scripture: The scriptural basis is found in John 1:29 and John 1:36 (…behold the Lamb of God…) and is evoked in the vision of the four beasts in Rev 5:6. Metaphysical: The Lamb of God is metaphysically the substance of being - the timeless self – through which we overcome separation from our unitive consciousness; it awakens the knowledge (no, the memory) of oneness, and this substance of being sees across time from the “what” that we manifest at this exact moment to the “who” that we are reclaiming. Historical Note: There is an interesting story about the Agnus Dei that, whether it is true or not, is revealing. This text, along with the Credo, was the last to be added to the ordinary of the Mass. It was added to Pope Sergius (687-701) as an act of defiance against the Byzantine Empire of Constantinople where it was ruled that Christ could not be depicted as an animal because it debased his God nature. Drawing upon the vast scriptural references of Christ as a lamb, Pope Sergius sought to once and for all codify this metaphor, which was so informative to the people.
THEY BUILDED an altar Noah Gen 8:20 AbrahamGen 12:7, 12:8, 12:18, 13:4, 22:9 Isaac Gen 26:25 Jacob Gen 33:20, 35:1, 35:3, 35:7 Moses Ex 17:15, 24:4 Balaam Num 23:1, 23:14, 23:19 Joshua Joshua 8:30-31 Tribe of Ruben Joshua 22:10 Gideon Judges 6:26-27 IsraelitesJudges 21:4 Samuel 1Sam 7:17 David 2Sam 24:21, 24:25 Jeroboam1Kings 12:33 Ahaz 2Kings 16:10-12
the uncut stone • Ex 30:25 – “…make an altar of stones, do not build it of dressed stones.” • Deut 27:5 – “…altar of stones. Do not use any iron tool upon them.” • Joshua 8:31 – “…an altar of uncut stones…” Why uncut stones: Uncut stones are raw and ready to be hewn into something new. They are receptive to change and ready to be made more beautiful. The altar is where we hewn into newness and this symbol remains to remind us of this reality.
Why an altar From a metaphysical viewpoint, the altar is that place in consciousness where we are willing to give up the lower self and embrace – no, it is more than that, it is to become – the higher self. The altar is the place where we move in consciousness from our human perception to our divine reality – for to become manifest within our being, our consciousness must first be changed. Through recognition of our non-dual nature – wherein we are both the human and the divine – we experience the greatest gladness and joy. Psalm 42: We come to the altar of God, the God of our gladness and joy.
questionS to PONDer At what point in the Holy Eucharist does the priest approach the altar? Why; what does it symbolize?