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I n t e g r a t i o n

I n t e g r a t i o n

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I n t e g r a t i o n

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  1. Chapter 21 Civil Rights Segre gation Integration

  2. Challenging the Supreme Court • Beginning in 1938 Thurgood Marshall and NAACP lawyers would win 29 out of 32 Supreme Court Cases to slowly chip away at the basics tenets of Plessy v. Ferguson • Sweat v. Painter-law schools must admit black applicants • Brown v. Board of Ed. p 698

  3. Brown v. Board of Ed 1954 • Linda Brown • 4 states • Thurgood Marshall • We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of Separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.

  4. There were two kinds of segregation • De jure segregation- racial segregation by law (South) • De facto segregation –separation caused by social and economic conditions (NORTH)

  5. Crisis in Little Rock • Gov. Orval Faubus intended to use the Nat’l Guard to prevent 9 black students from entering Central High School.

  6. 8 of the black students received phone calls and were escorted by ministers to school. Elizabeth Eckford went by herself and ended up taking a bus home!

  7. In the end.. • Eisenhower federalized the Nat’l Guard. He ordered in 1000 paratroopers to escort the 9 into the building, but these soldiers couldn’t protect the students from troublemakers on the inside. • Faubus shut down the school at the end of the year rather than integrating

  8. Montgomery Bus Boycott • Parks sat in the front row of colored section • Wouldn’t give up her seat and was arrested

  9. MLK led Montgomery Improvement Assoc. (p701) and helped organize the bus boycott • For 381 days African Americans boycotted buses until the Supreme Court decision in 1956 ---MLK was the 1st to get on a bus again, “It was a great ride”

  10. Civil Rights in the 60s

  11. MLK admired and studied 4 men: • Jesus (Love thy neighbors) • Henry Thoreau (Civil Disobedience) • Mohandus Gandhi (non violence, passive resistance) • A. Phillip Randolph (organizing marches)

  12. Leaders, Groups, and Strategies

  13. Laying the Groundwork • NAACP-interracial organization and used the court system to try to end segregation and discrimination. • CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) was founded to help bring about change peacefully and end discrimination. • MLK founded the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) worked to bring about non violent protests and shifted the focus on the civil rights movement to the South.

  14. Ultimately we are trying to free ALL of America-negroes from the bonds of segregation and shame, whites from the bonds of bigotry and fear. -Martin Luther King

  15. CORE created the sit-in as a powerful and useful tactic of the Civil Rights Movement. These 4 college students staged a sit in at the Woolworth Lunch Counter in Greensborough, NC. They weren’t served, but sat. Their actions touched off many sit ins all around the country. Six months later these same 4 students went back and were served lunch

  16. answers only • Which type of segregation was required by law? • In what city did Rosa Parks begin a bus boycott? • What group worked through the court system? • Who was the lawyer who argued the Brown v. Board of Ed case? • What distinction did #4 earn?

  17. Write a paragraph about MLK & his philosophy of protest. Be sure to include the 4 men he admired and why?Hint: that is not Abe Lincoln!!

  18. The Purpose of Freedom Rides • In 1961 CORE and SNCC organized the Freedom Rides to test southern compliance with integrating bus stations and restaurants that served interstate travelers (Boynton v. Virginia 1960 )

  19. Freedom Rides • 2 buses with interracial teams set out around the South • Bus one -boarded by white racists& one man died; kept going; white mobs attacked them once they got where they were going • Bus two-tires slashed & sides kicked by angry white mob; fire bomb; freedom riders forced open door and spilled out before bus exploded

  20. Reaction to the Freedom Rides • Americans were horrified by the violence • Freedom Rides continued during the summer. Many riders were arrested. • Atty. Gen. Robert Kennedy had originally been opposed to lending federal support to Freedom Rides; however he later sent federal marshals to protect the riders • Kennedy also pressured the ICC to prohibit segregation in all interstate transportation.

  21. Integration at “Ole Miss” • In 1961 James Meredith, an African American, was rejected by all white Un. Of Miss. or “Ole Miss” • NAACP argued that Meredith had been rejected on racial grounds. Supreme Court sided with Meredith.

  22. More problems for Meredith • Mississippi Gov. Ross Barnett personally blocked Meredith’s way to the admissions office • Violence erupted on campus • Situation became a standoff between the Governor and the Justice Dept. • President Kennedy sent federal marshals to escort Meredith around campus

  23. The Clash in Birmingham, AL • MLK led protesters; was arrested • While in the Birmingham Jail , wrote a famous letter defending his tactics and his timing. • Gets out of jail with help of Kennedies

  24. Reaction to Birmingham Marches • “Bombingham” • Police attacked the marchers with high pressure fire hoses, police dogs, and clubs • Children Crusades- MLK decided to allow young people to participate • As television cameras captured the violence, Americans around the country were horrified

  25.   “I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.” -George Wallace

  26.   Kennedy used Federal troops to force Alabama Gov George Wallace to integrate University of AL

  27. JFK and Civil Rights • JFK won black support in 60 election • civil rights leader Medgar Evers was murdered.hours after JFK gave a speech against discrimination • Violence erupted in Birmingham in 1963 • JFK introduced a stronger civil rights bill

  28. Provisions of the Civil Rights Act • Banned different voter registration standards for blacks and whites • Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations (restaurants, hotels, and theaters) • Allowed the withholding of federal funds from programs that practice discrimination • Banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religions, or national origin by employers and unions and created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC.

  29. March on Washington • held Aug. 1963 • Purpose: to focus nation on Kennedy’s civil rights bill • Over 250,000 people came (1/4 were white) • peaceful and orderly march, including musicians, religious leaders and celebrities.

  30. March on Washington • “I Have a Dream” speech by MLK in front of the Lincoln Memorial • Despite the success of the march, Kennedy’s civil rights bill remained stalled in Congress

  31. JFK shot, Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) takes over • After JFK was assassinated, President LBJ worked to build support for JFK’s civil rights bill (From left to right Lady Byrd Johnson, LBJ, JFK’s widow Jacquline Kennedy) LBJ being sworn in aboard Air Force One after JFK’s assassination

  32. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Johnson’s Role • The House passed the civil rights bill; but the opponents in the Senate held it up with a filibuster. • The Act is passed when Johnson countered the filibuster with a procedure called cloture, a 3/5 vote to limit debate and call for a vote

  33. “Freedom Summer” • In summer of ‘64 about 1000 African American and white volunteers participated a voter registration drive in Mississippi • Volunteers were beaten, shot at, arrested and murdered. African American churches and homes were burned and firebombed.

  34. MLK assassinated • In 1968 MLK was assassinated by James Earl Ray. • Later the same year, Robert Kennedy was also assassinated.

  35. Important Effects • Civil Rights Act of 1964 -eliminated literacy tests • 24th Amendment-outlawed poll tax • Urban Violence Erupts (irony-violence erupts after they are GIVEN rights) • Riots in HARLEM • Watts Riot in L.A. lasted 6 days

  36. Malcolm X • originally Malcolm Little • Jailed for burglary at 20; became a folllower of Elijah Muhamed (leader of Nation of Islam) • Opposed integration, preached self help • Believed whites were cause of problems • Advocated armed self defense (713) • Went to Mecca, changed attitude toward whites • Ballots or bullets • Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965.

  37. THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY “If you don't attack us, there won't be any violence; [but] if you bring violence to us, we will defend ourselves.”

  38. Origin • Founded to guard against police brutality in black neighborhoods and provide social services • Founders: Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland.

  39. Origin: The Ten Point Program • We want power to determine the destiny of our black and oppressed communities. • We want full employment for our people. • We want an end to the robbery. • We want decent housing, fit for the shelter of human beings. • We want decent education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present-day society. • We want completely free health care for all black and oppressed people. • We want an immediate end to police brutality and murder of black people, other people of color, all oppressed people inside the United States. • We want an immediate end to all wars of aggression. • We want freedom for all black and oppressed people now held in U.S. Federal, state, country, city, and military prisons and jails. We want trials by a jury of peers for all persons charged with so-called crimes under the laws of this country. • We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice, peace, and people’s community control of modern technology. ( _Panther_Party)

  40. Bobby Seale, left, and Huey Newton, co-founders of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense

  41. Panther Accomplishments • Grew to be 5,000 strong • Free Breakfast for Children Program • Testing for Sickle Cell Disease • Clothing Distribution • Emergency Response Ambulance Program • Drug and Alcohol Abuse Rehabilitation • Lessons on Self Defense and First Aid • Transportation to see inmates in prisons

  42. Political Activities • Merged with Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Organized a march on the California state capital in 1967 • Free Huey Campaign – to get Huey Newton out of prison • Both founders left in1974 & party fell apart

  43. Conflicts and the End of the Panthers • 21 Panther’s charged for plotting to assassinate police officers and blow up buildings. • COINTELPRO-FBI had program to infiltrate dissident groups

  44. Power to the People