Political Geography • Nations, States and Stateless Nations • Peace of Westphalia • What is a Nation? What is a state • Stateless Nations • 4 Pillars of a state • Are there any real Nation-States? • What about states like Arkansas?
Territory • States cannot exist without territory • Territorial Morphology – geographers study the size, shape and relative location of states? • How does the size and shape of a state give advantages or disadvantages? • 5 types of territorial morphologies
Exclaves & Enclaves • Exclave – bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a state but lies separated from it by territory of another state. • Enclave – piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part (landlocked within the country which surrounds them. • See page 211 in your text • To understand, it is all about perspective
LANDLOCKED COUNTRIES • Isolation • At the mercy of neighbors • Need communication linkages (highways, airports, rivers, etc.) • Have formed alliances with other countries to lessen isolation • Only Liechtenstein & Uzbekistan are landlocked & surrounded by landlocked countries
BOUNDARIES • Obviously mark the land surface • Turn to page 243-245 in your text • But, they also extend into airspace and the ground • What about natural resources? • What about air traffic? • What about sea traffic?
Setting BoundariesStage One • DEFINITION – exact location established through legal agreement, treaty, etc. Can describe terrain feature or be measured by longitude and latitude.
Setting BoundariesStage Two • DELIMITATION – putting the boundary on a map officially.
Setting BoundariesStage Three • DEMARCATION – The final stage. Marking a boundary with fences, walls, posts, pillars, or other markers. Most of the world’s boundaries are not demarcated.
Four Types of Boundary Disputes • Definitional – center on legal issues • Locational – definitions not disputed – the interpretation is • Operational – parties differ on how boundary should function (how migration should occur) • Allocational – conflict over “stuff” – oil, gas, seafloor riches, water
Former Yugoslavia - pg.237 (is the closest thing)http://www.montenet.org/home/yugoslav.jpg
FEDERAL STATES • Political framework where the central government represents its political subunits where they have common interests – defense, foreign affairs, etc. – but these subunits retain their own identities, laws, policies, customs, etc. • Accommodates regional differences and enables diversity and unity to coexist
FEDERAL STATES • Geographer K.W. Robinson said, “The federal state is the most expressive of all political systems.” • What did he mean by this?
UNITARY STATES • State which has a centralized government that exercises power equally over all parts of the state. • Highly centralized • Appeasing minorities maybe not important • Government frameworks are set up to reinforce the central government’s power
Unitary States of the World in blue – Federal States in grayhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Unitary_states.png