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Who says political geography is not important? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Who says political geography is not important?

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  1. Who says political geography is not important?

  2. Political Geography • Nations, States and Stateless Nations • Peace of Westphalia • What is a Nation? What is a state • Stateless Nations • 4 Pillars of a state • Are there any real Nation-States? • What about states like Arkansas?

  3. Most modern-day boundaries were drawn by whom?

  4. Territory • States cannot exist without territory • Territorial Morphology – geographers study the size, shape and relative location of states? • How does the size and shape of a state give advantages or disadvantages? • 5 types of territorial morphologies

  5. COMPACTWhat are the advantages & disadvantages?

  6. FRAGMENTEDWhat are the advantages & disadvantages?

  7. ELONGATEDWhat are the advantages & disadvantages?

  8. PRORUPT or PROTRUDEDWhat are the advantages & disadvantages?

  9. PERFORATEDWhat are the advantages & disadvantages?

  10. What territorial morphologyis ITALY?

  11. Exclaves & Enclaves • Exclave – bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a state but lies separated from it by territory of another state. • Enclave – piece of territory that is surrounded by another political unit of which it is not a part (landlocked within the country which surrounds them. • See page 211 in your text • To understand, it is all about perspective

  12. ‘Google’ Azerbaijan and Armenia maps and look what you get…

  13. Talk about a strangely shaped states

  14. Shape is not a constant for political/economic stability or instability

  15. Resource rich…but with many problems

  16. Very few natural resources…but wealthy and stable

  17. LANDLOCKED COUNTRIES • Isolation • At the mercy of neighbors • Need communication linkages (highways, airports, rivers, etc.) • Have formed alliances with other countries to lessen isolation • Only Liechtenstein & Uzbekistan are landlocked & surrounded by landlocked countries

  18. BOUNDARIES • Obviously mark the land surface • Turn to page 243-245 in your text • But, they also extend into airspace and the ground • What about natural resources? • What about air traffic? • What about sea traffic?

  19. Setting BoundariesStage One • DEFINITION – exact location established through legal agreement, treaty, etc. Can describe terrain feature or be measured by longitude and latitude.

  20. Setting BoundariesStage Two • DELIMITATION – putting the boundary on a map officially.

  21. Setting BoundariesStage Three • DEMARCATION – The final stage. Marking a boundary with fences, walls, posts, pillars, or other markers. Most of the world’s boundaries are not demarcated.

  22. Four Types of Boundary Disputes • Definitional – center on legal issues • Locational – definitions not disputed – the interpretation is • Operational – parties differ on how boundary should function (how migration should occur) • Allocational – conflict over “stuff” – oil, gas, seafloor riches, water

  23. Former Yugoslavia - pg.237 (is the closest thing)http://www.montenet.org/home/yugoslav.jpg

  24. FEDERAL STATES • Political framework where the central government represents its political subunits where they have common interests – defense, foreign affairs, etc. – but these subunits retain their own identities, laws, policies, customs, etc. • Accommodates regional differences and enables diversity and unity to coexist

  25. FEDERAL STATES • Geographer K.W. Robinson said, “The federal state is the most expressive of all political systems.” • What did he mean by this?

  26. UNITARY STATES • State which has a centralized government that exercises power equally over all parts of the state. • Highly centralized • Appeasing minorities maybe not important • Government frameworks are set up to reinforce the central government’s power

  27. Unitary States of the World in blue – Federal States in grayhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Unitary_states.png