Political Development in the Age of Absolutism Prestige - Diplomacy - Organization - Personality - Opulence - Privilege - Conflict
What Was The Time Like? • During the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries there were important shifts in power in Europe. • Countries that had been powerful declined in power due to political and/or economic problems. ( Netherlands, Spain, Ottoman Empire, and Poland.) • Those that rose to power had strong centralized governments. These states included England, France, Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Russia and Prussia were new players in European politics. One of the important factors in the success or failure of the state was the monarch.
What Was The Time Like? • Powerful kings • Power to tax • Power to raise armies • Centralized control • Sea power shifts the world’s wealth
Age of Absolutism • “Princes, thus, act as ministers of God, and as His lieutenants on earth. It is through them that He acts on His empire.” • Absolutism-a form of government where the power is held by one individual. • Divine Right-a belief that the ruler received his authority to rule directly from God.
FRANCE- How did it become #1? • 15th Century – limited armies fighting limited battles throughout Europe • 16th Century – Europe at war • 1494 – King Charles VII of France invaded Italy • Charles wanted to unite Europe under one church • Gunpowder was major question
FRANCE- How did it become #1? • Mid 16th century • Religious wars broke out all over Europe • Machiavellian thoughts led to ruthless and unlimited destruction • Citizen-soldiers fought for cause of God • Mercenaries then filled in ranks
French Wars of Religion • Calvinism vs. Catholicism: Its War Baby – very militant • Cause: each side trying to convert the other • Additional social, economic, political issues • French Kings persecuted • Protestants but it had little • effect in stopping the spread • of Protestantism http://www.economist.com/images/20050528/D2205US0.jpg
Social Crises, War, and Revolution…. “There was nothing but beating and burning, plundering, torture, and murder. Most especially was every one of the enemy bent on securing (riches)…. In this frenzied rage, the great and splendid city was now given over to flames, and thousands of innocent men, women, and children, in the midst of heartrending shrieks and cries, were tortured and put to death…
France • HENRY IV-1589-1610 • Founder of the House of Bourbon • Was a Huguenot. Converted to Catholicism for unity. • Issued Edict of Nantes- gave religious freedom to the Huguenots.
France • UNDER THE BOURBON KINGS, FRANCE BECOMES AN ABSOLUTE MONARCHY • FRANCE BECOMES THE MOST POWERFUL NATION IN EUROPE • FRANCE IS STRENGTHENED BY THE THIRTY YEARS WAR
Divine Right of Kings • In 1600s this idea of Absolutism was tied with idea of divine right of kings – rulers receive their power from God and were responsible to no one but God • They could make laws, tax, etc.
FRANCE • After Henry IV’s death, Louis XIII inherited the throne. • Marie de Medici (his mom) ruled for 7 years until he forcefully took back the throne in 1617. • Gave power to advisor-Cardinal Richelieu • Richelieu worked to strengthen the monarchy by reducing the power of the nobles and Huguenots.
Richelieu Richelieu Was, in effect, the ruler of France. Increased power of monarchy Weakened nobility by tearing down their castles Kept their families as “guests” or imprisoned at the royal palace Weakened rights of Huguenots (Protestant minority) Forget that Edict of Nantes! * made France the richest and most powerful country by involving it in the 30 Years War shl.stanford.edu:3455/9/admin/image.html?imag.
30 Years War • Began in the Holy Roman Empire • That is Germany to you…
Louis XIII died and along comesLouis XIV The Sun King The best example of an absolute ruler
L’état, C’est Moi! • “What a grandeur, that a single man should embody so much!…Behold this holy power, paternal and absolute, contained in a single head: you see the image of God in the king, and you have the idea of royal majesty.”
LOUIS XIV • The Sun King-Louis XIV • 72 year reign • Most powerful Bourbon monarch • Lived at Versailles-outside of Paris. Built a magnificent palace there.
Louis XIV’s Government • Believed in France’s unity • Revoked the Edict of Nantes • Strengthened military • Fought for territory and glory for France • War of Spanish Succession-fight over Spanish throne • Treaty of Utrecht ended War of Spanish Succession. Said both France and Spain under Bourbon rulers, but could never be united. • Louis’ aggression led to other countries forming an alliance against France to achieve a balance of power.
Balance of Power Sweden France England Netherlands
France under Louis XIV • Appointed close advisors- Jean-Baptiste Colbert • The poor carried most of the tax burden. • Louis XIV’s France flourished in arts and culture, but he left France in financial despair. • Major conflicts between nobles and middle class will lead to the French Revolution.
The Empires of Russia http://www.diggerhistory.info/images/flags/russia-flag.jpg
Great Britain Austria Hungary Russia Holy Roman Empire = Germany Spain France Papal States (Catholic Church)
Stalin admired him. The rest of Europe believed he was mad. What is certain is that he was one of the most ruthless tyrants in history. Michael Romanov First big ruler of Russia in 1600s A man of God who personally tortured his victims and beat his own son to death; a hardened despot who often behaved like a coward, asking his ally, Elizabeth I of England, for political asylum; a man who believed himself chosen to save the souls of his people, but who brutally put thousands to death in carefully orchestrated purges. Ivan IV – 1st Czar http://images.pearsoned-ema.com/jpeg/large/058209948X.jpg
Ivan IV – 1st Czar Michael Romanov First big ruler of Russia in 1600s • Sought to reduce power of the boyars(nobles) who threatened his power. • Increased trade, introduced the printing press to Russia, gained territory http://images.pearsoned-ema.com/jpeg/large/058209948X.jpg
Next Czar: Michael Romanov Cossacks The fierce warriors who helped Michael Romanov keep power
RUSSIA • ROMANOV DYNASTY • 1584-1613: After death of Ivan the Terrible, “Time of Troubles” in Russia • Famine, epidemics, peasant revolts • Michael Romanov elected czar • Romanov dynasty ruled until 1917
became Czar in 1689 • absolutist monarch who • claimed the Divine Right • of Kings • Known for westernizing Russia • Russia becomes a great • military power • Divides Russia into provinces • to better rule it • Established bureaucracy • Allows women more equality • Taught manners in the court • Built capital of St. Petersburg – • his “window to the West”
RUSSIA • PETER I- “PETER THE GREAT--7’2’’ • Sought to westernize Russia • Toured Western Europe and learned various customs. He ordered Russian nobility to follow • Western dress, shaved beards, included women in social gatherings • Built St. Petersburg- “Window to the West” • Established central bureaucracy • Controlled Eastern Orthodox Church • Peasants lost freedom • New class of nobles-dvorianie
St. Petersburg • The jewel of the • Russian Empire • THE city to be in • Full of art, music, • drama Window of the West http://www.ikzm-d.de/abbildungen/51_small_map_of_st_petersburg.JPG
RUSSIA • Effect of Peter the Great • Peter’s reforms brought Russia into mainstream Western civilization • Strengthened Russia’s position in foreign affairs • Formed a sharp division between those who accepted the changes and those who clung to traditional values.