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What is Geography?

What is Geography?

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What is Geography?

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  1. What is Geography? Is it more than studying countries and capitals?

  2. State Standards Content Standard: 3.0 Geography enables the students to see, understand and appreciate the web of relationships between people, places, and environments. Students will use the knowledge, skills, and understanding of concepts within the six essential elements of geography: world in spatial terms, places and regions, physical systems, human systems, environment and society, and the uses of geography. 3.01 Understand the characteristics and uses of maps, globes, and other geographic tools and technologies. 7.3.01 Discuss applications of current geographic techniques in mapping such as GIS and GPS

  3. What is Geography? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwbToV-FvsU

  4. Two Main Branches of Geography Geography is the knowledge of the world, its people, and the landscapes they create… Landscapes are all the physical and human features that make it unique. Two kinds of features on Earth means Two kinds of Geography physical geography and human geography

  5. Physical vs. Human Landscapes It is important to remember that a feature can only be classified as being physical if it is not created by humans. Examples: rivers and mountains. This means that features such as agricultural crops and man-made dams, are considered to be human features. Human landscapes are those which have been made by humans. The most obvious examples are settlements (towns and cities), transportation systems (road, rail, sea and air) and industry (mining and agriculture etc).

  6. Physical vs. Human Landscapes Geographers who study primarily physical landscapes are call Physical Geographers Geographers who study primarily human landscapes are call Human Geographers Tropical Rainforests

  7. Two Main Branches of Geography Geography is the knowledge of the world, its people, and the landscapes they create… Green Slides Green Book Pages 4-5

  8. Two Main Branches of Geography

  9. Two Main Branches of Geography Physical Geography Study of Earth’s physical features– its landforms, bodies of water, climates, soils, and plants ---- how they work and influence humans. • Physical Geography

  10. Two Main Branches of Geography • Geographers who study the physical features of Earth, like scientists, ask questions such as: • Physical Geography • What causes things? • Why are some mountains still growing? Why are they located where they are? • What causes rivers to flow North, South, East or West? • Why are there different climates? • Physical Geography Example: Geographers, and other scientists, researching volcanoes: http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/7158-kilauea-a-volcano-lab-video.htm

  11. Two Main Divisions of Geography…as you can see from the definition of geography, there are two main divisions… • Physical Geography • Why study Earth's features? • By understanding of Earth's features and how they effect people, we can really understand our world. • Studying physical features allows geographers to see changes - such as the damage caused by pollution • Physical Geography

  12. Two Main Divisions of Geography…as you can see from the definition of geography, there are two main divisions… • Physical Geography • Why study Earth's changes? • To see if we can prevent the changes or slow them down. Example: global warming. • Helps us prepare for those changes. Example: knowing what causes volcanoes helps us to prepare for danger. • Physical Geography

  13. Two Main Divisions of Geography…as you can see from the definition of geography, there are two main divisions… • Physical Geography • Closely linked to science • Studies Earth's physical features and how they work. Example: how it is shaped and what is happening now. • Studies Earth's surface such as plate tectonics; climate; glaciers • Physical Geography Delicate Arch LaSalle in Utah’s Arches National Park.

  14. Two Main Divisions of Geography Physical Geography • Examples of Questions • 1. What does the land look like? Are there tall mountains or is the land flat? • 2. Is the land covered with snow? Is the ground covered with green vegetation? • 3. Does the area experience tornados, hurricanes, or earthquakes? • 4. What kind of seasons does the area experience? • Physical Geography

  15. Two Main Branches of GeographyGeography is a Science • Physical Geography Physical geography is a science in that it researches, makes observations, gathers data, takes measurements, and analyzes data. Planet Earth: What a Wonderful World

  16. Two Main Branches of Geography What a wonderful world! But what is missing? • Human Geography

  17. Two Main Branches of Geography • Human Geography Human geography is a social science in that it studies people and the relationships among them. Relations with other people. Relationships with the environment.

  18. Two Main Divisions of Geography • Human Geography • Studies • World's people, communities, culture...and interactions • Geographers look at where people live and why. They look at why some parts of Earth are more densely populated and why other parts of Earth have almost no people living there at all • Human Geography

  19. Two Main Divisions of Geography • Human Geography • Studies • Human geographers study what people do: What are their jobs? What crops do they grow? What makes them move from place to place? • Human Geography

  20. Two Main Divisions of Geography Human Geography - Studies how Earth’s features affect humans. Studies how humans affect Earth’s features.

  21. Two Main Divisions of Geography • Human Geography • Studies governments and politics. • Studies population • Studies cities • Studies race and nationality • Studies culture: the language, religion, music, economy, government and other cultural aspects • Studies the history of how people have interacted with their environment, and created culture.

  22. Two Main Branches of Geography Geographers who study people and their interactions with each other and their landscapes are called social scientists. They ask questions like: 1. Do people live in apartments or houses? 2. Do most people own cars? Have telephones? Have Internet? 3. What kinds of goods do they manufacture? What kinds of services do they provide? 4. How long do they live? 5. How many people immigrate or emigrate? 6. Where do people build cities and why? • Human Geography Example: Geographers, and other scientists, study Southeast Cities.

  23. Two Main Branches of GeographyGeography is a Science How do Physical Geographers gather data? Some ways are: 1. Take detailed measurements of places like mountains or measurements of temperature. 2. Study satellite images. 3. Track changes over time. 4. Keep careful records. How do Human Geographers gather data? Some ways are: 1. Take detailed measurements of people’s interactions with each other, their government, their religion or with their physical environment. 2. Study satellite images. 3. Track changes over time. 4. Keep careful records. Geography is a science in that it researches, makes observations, gathers data, takes measurements, and analyzes data.

  24. Two Main Branches of Geography See picture on page 17

  25. Two Main Branches of Geography H = P = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uN1D3D0f5Lg&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL Summary: p. 5 What are the ways that geographers can gather scientific data about places? Why is geography sometimes called a social science? What are some types of work a geographer might do? In what ways could studying geography be useful?

  26. Branches of Geography – In Detail Purple Slides Green Book p. 16 - 20

  27. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Physical Geographers study Earths physical features such as plate tectonic activity, land forms, climate, bodies of water, soils and flora and fauna… Every place on Earth is unique. Physical Geographer

  28. Plate Tectonics“Why do earthquakes happen? Where do they happen? Are they related to volcanoes?” See animation: http://www.neiu.edu/~llsander/earthquakes.html

  29. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Physical Geographers want to know where the world’s plains and mountains are located. They want to know how rivers flow. They want to know why it is hot in some places and cold in another. Physical Geographer

  30. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Physical Geographers want to know what causes the different shapes on Earth. They want to know why mountains are located where they are and why some of the mountains are still growing. Physical Geographer

  31. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Physical Geographers want to know why some rivers flow north, some flow south, and others flow east or west. Physical Geographer

  32. “What are natural causes that change Earth’s physical features?” Most of the time, natural changes to Earth’s physical features are slow. But such fast changes can occur by earthquakes and ocean waves.

  33. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Physical Geographers want to know the world’s different weather patterns and climate. Physical Geographer

  34. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geographer How do they gather data? Some ways are: 1. Take detailed measurements of places like mountains or measurements of temperature. 2. Study satellite images. 3. Track changes over time. 4. Keep careful records.

  35. Branches of Geography – In Detail Physical Geography Uses: 1. The main purpose of physical geography is to give us a better understanding of the physical features of our world. Once they study the physical features, the physical geographers want to know how these effect people and how they live. The main reason is to learn how the world works. 2. Studying changes of the physical features helps us prepare to be safe. For example, physical geographers study volcanoes so they can predict when the next eruption will occur so people can evacuate. Similar with storms… This helps us adjust to the changes and dangers of our world. Physical Geographer

  36. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Study of the world’s people, community and human landscapes. Human Geographer

  37. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Study of the world’s people: their past and present. Look at where people and why. They want to know why many people live in one area and a few people live in another. Human Geographer

  38. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Study of the world’s people: What are the jobs? What kinds of crops do they grow? What makes people move from place to place? Human Geographer

  39. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Because there are so many different people in our world, human geographers often specialize. a. Some may choose to study a certain region like Africa. Human Geographer

  40. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Because there are so many different people in our world, human geographers often specialize. b. Some human geographers don’t want to study just one place. Instead, they choose to study a certain aspect of people’s lives: religion, economics, politics or government types. Human Geographer

  41. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography How do they gather data? Some ways are: 1. Take detailed measurements of people’s interactions with each other, government, religion or with their physical environment. 2. Study satellite images. 3. Track changes over time. 4. Keep careful records. Human Geographer

  42. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Uses: 1. By studying basic needs of all humans: food, water, and shelter. These are needed to survive. Human geographers can help people improve their lives. Human Geographer

  43. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Uses: 2. If study government systems, the Human Geographers can give people information so they can make good decisions. Human Geographer

  44. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Uses: 3. If study different cultures, they can provide information to help people understand one another so they will get along with one another. Human Geographer

  45. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Uses: 4. If study cities, they can provide information to help people build efficient cities with well planned roads, school, and neighborhoods. By studying where people g and what they need, geographers can help city planners place roads, shopping malls, and schools. Human Geographer

  46. Branches of Geography – In Detail Human Geography Uses: 5. If study people and environment, then Human Geographers can help local and federal governmental agencies protect the environment. Human Geographer

  47. Branches of Geography – In Detail Cartography The science of making maps. Without maps, geographers could not study the world. Cartography Geographer

  48. Branches of Geography – In Detail Cartography The science of making maps. In the past, maps were drawn by hand. Therefore, not many maps were not completely accurate. Cartography Geographer

  49. Branches of Geography – In Detail Cartography John Ogilby (1600-1676) was a Scottish cartographer, translator and publisher who was appointed “His Majesty's Cosmographer and Geographic Printer” under the royal patronage of Charles II in 1674. After the Great Fire of London in 1666 had destroyed his house and shop along with a majority of his inventory, Ogilby began to publish the geographical works that he would later become famous for. One of the most important volumes that he published was "America" (1671). Cartography Geographer