The People & History of Latin America Mayas, Incas, Aztecs, & the Spanish
Regions of Latin America • Mexico and Central America • Caribbean Islands • South America
Caribbean Islands Mexico & Central America South America
Match the Countries Haiti Cuba Jamaica Dominican Republic Mexico Trinidad & Tobago Belize Guatemala Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama
Guyana Match the Countries! Venezuela Suriname Colombia French Guiana Ecuador Brazil Bolivia Peru Paraguay Chile Uruguay Argentina
Latin American Vocabulary! • Andes Mountains 11. NAFTA • Llanos 12. Cultural Hearth • Cerrado • Pampas 13. Oligarchy • Patagonia 14. Carnival • Slash-and-Burn 15. Samba • Push-Pull Factors 16. Capoeira • Tenochtitlan 17. Terrace Farming • Mestizo • Maquiladoras
Landforms/Bodies of Water • Mountains: • Sierra Madre Occidental/Oriental (Mexico) • Andes (South America) • Rivers: • Amazon (South America) • Orinoco (Venezuela) • Parana (South America) • Islands: • Lesser Antilles (Small Islands) • Greater Antilles (Large Islands) Also throughout South America, you will find the Pampas (a plains area) and Patagonia (plateau)
Greater Antilles – large islands (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, & Puerto Rico) Lesser Antilles – smaller islands southeast of Puerto Rico Island Groups of the Caribbean
Amazon River • Flows about 4,000 miles from west to east • Begins in the Andes Mountains and empties into the Atlantic Ocean • Fed by over 1,000 tributaries • Carries more water to the ocean than any other river in the world
Climate and Vegetation • Vegetation: • *Rain Forests (Amazon) • Desert (Argentina) • Grassland
Resources • Most of the region is wealthy in terms of mineral resources (gold, silver, iron, copper, tin, lead, etc.) • Many Energy resources are also found (oil, coal, natural gas, etc.) • Oil Reserves in Mexico • Central American countries are POOR in terms of resources • Numerous resources in South America • Amongst the world’s leaders in mining raw materials
Slash & Burn • Slash-and-burn farming = traditionally used by migrant farmers, they cut down all the plants and strip any trees of bark. After the plants and trees have dried out, they are set on fire, the ash helps the soil, but the soil is only good for 2-3 years, when this happens the farmer moves on and the process repeats itself.
Human-Environment Interaction • Terraced Farming • Growing crops on hillsides • Urbanization: • Push and Pull Factors • Encouraged cities to grow rapidly
Tourism • Pros: • Brings in money • Creates jobs • Cons: • Congestion • Pollution • Disrupts unsettled lands
Ethnic Diversity • Latin America is made up of many different groups of people; natives, Europeans, blacks, and mixed peoples • Mestizos = people of mixed Native American and European descent • Mulattoes = people of mixed African and European descent
Language • Most regions have adopted the language of the people who colonized them. • Dialects = forms of a language peculiar to a particular place or group
Population Density ~a closer look at Mexico and Mexico City~ • ~97.5 million people live in Mexico • It is the most populated Spanish-speaking nation in the world. • Mexico City is ranked the 11th most populated city in the world • One of the most polluted cities in the world.
The Maya • Central America • Tikal – city in modern Guatemala • Pyramid shaped temples
The Maya … continued… • Skilled in mathematics • Developed concept of zero • Calendar – based on orbit of the earth & sun (365 ¼ day calendar) • Invented Game that is a cross between basketball & soccer Pictures of Ballcourts
The Incas • People of the Andes Mountains • Capital is Cuzco in Peru • Political system with an emperor • Terrace farming – cut into the side of mountains • Domesticated the alpaca & llama
The Incas … continued … • Quipu = a rope with knotted cords of various lengths and colors, used to keep records and send messages • Machu Picchu – “Lost city of the Inca” Machu Picchu – Incan city in the Andes mountains - discovered in 1911 untouched!!
The Incas … continued … • Conquistador “Spanish conqueror” • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca people
Aztecs • Valley of Mexico • Capital of Tenochtitlan on an island in the middle of a lake (modern day Mexico City is built on top) • Advanced farming • Chinampas – floating artificial islands built on large rafts covered with mud.
Chinampasonline diagram • http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wcg_survey/page_build.htm?id=resources/jsp/ani_geo/ani_geo_3
The Aztecs … continued… • Complex political system with an emperor • Worshipped many gods & goddesses ceremonies with prisoner sacrifices • Heran Cortes – conquistador from Spain, conquered the Aztecs
Legacy of colonialism • When colonies, Latin America was ruled by kings and queens of Europe.
All became independent by the mid 1800s ruled by a few leaders, called an oligarchy. Did not always protect people’s basic rights (freedom of speech, and press)
During the 20th century some Latin American countries were ruled by a military dictator, a caudillo. Ex. Juan Peron of Argentina, whose wife Evita Peron was famous for being loved by the people. When the government could not control the people, sometimes the military took over, a junta, and was ruled by generals.
Today all the countries of Latin America except Cuba are democracies. The goals of Latin America today are to end poverty, pollution, and illiteracy Creating Stable Governments
Art ~ Diego Rivera ~ • Used art to educate • Created huge murals that combined modern forms with traditional designs to present the daily life and history of the country. • Most famous mural is in Detroit, Michigan
Art~ Frida Kahlo ~ • Mexican artist whose tormented paintings gave her great fame and changed the art world • Featured on the cover of Vogue magazine • 2002 movie staring Salma Hayek about her life. (and no we will not watch this movie)
Literature • Modernism = 1800s literary movement, in which writers and poets focused on artistic expression for its own sake. • Gabriela Mistral – writer from Chile • Gabriel Garcia Marquez – writer from Colombia • A movie is being made of his book “Love in a time of Cholera” • Both have won a Nobel Prize for Literature.
Calypso – from Trinidad (combines Africa, Spain and the Caribbean) Reggae – Jamaica, 1960’s – deals with social problems and religion Bob Marley Music
Leisure Time & Celebrations • Brazil has won the World Cup of Soccer 5 times!! • Futbol (soccer) very popular and a national sport in many countries • Jai alai (HY-LY) – a traditional favorite in Mexico and Cuba, fast paced game like racketball
Leisure Time & Celebrations … continued … • Capoeira – martial arts of Brazil • Samba – Brazilian Dance
Leisure Time & Celebrations … continued … • Carnival – festival celebrated just before the beginning of Lent, the Christian holy season that comes before Easter – the biggest Carnival is held each year in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil