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HCI History Key people, events, ideas and paradigm shifts Agenda Questions History of interactive breakthroughs Themes People Why study HCI history? Interactive paradigms (change) What is a true paradigm? What has been influential? What worked? Learn from the past

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hci history

HCI History

Key people, events, ideas and

paradigm shifts

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

agenda
Agenda
  • Questions
  • History of interactive breakthroughs
    • Themes
    • People

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

why study hci history
Why study HCI history?
  • Interactive paradigms (change)
  • What is a true paradigm?
    • What has been influential?
    • What worked?
  • Learn from the past

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

some additional resources
Some additional resources
  • Howard Rheingold – Tools for Thought
    • History of interactive breakthroughs, online at: http://www.rheingold.com/texts/tft/
  • James Landay & Jason Hong – The Past, Present, Future of Interactive Computing
    • http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jasonh/cs39i-seminar

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

rough outline
Rough outline…

?

WIMP

(Windows)

User Productivity

Command Line

Batch

?

1980s - Present

1960s – 1970s

1940s – 1950s

Time

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

some of the key technological advances paradigm shifts
(Some of the) key technological advances / paradigm shifts
  • Sensor-based & context-aware computing
  • Time-sharing & networks
  • Video display units
  • Programming toolkits
  • Personal computing
  • Windows
  • Metaphors
  • Direct manipulation
  • Language vs. action (agents)
  • Hypertext / WWW
  • Multi-modality
  • Ubiquitous computing

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

some of the key people events
(Some of the) key people & events
  • People
    • Vannevar Bush
    • Douglas Engelbart
    • Ivan Sutherland
    • J.C.R. Licklider
    • Alan Kay
    • Ted Nelson
    • Mark Weiser
  • Events
    • Founding of Xerox PARC
    • Lisa / Macintosh

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

in the beginning computing in 1945
In the beginning – Computing in 1945
  • Harvard Mark I
  • 55 feet long, 8 feet high, 5 tons

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

Jason Hong / James Landay, UC Berkeley

Picture from http://piano.dsi.uminho.pt/museuv/indexmark.htm

computing in 1945
Computing in 1945
  • Ballistics calculations
  • Physical switches (before microprocessor)
  • Paper tape
  • Simple arithmetic & fixed calculations (before programs)
  • 3 seconds to multiply

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

Jason Hong / James Landay, UC Berkeley

Picture from http://www.gmcc.ab.ca/~supy/

batch processing
Batch processing
  • Computer had one task, performed sequentially
  • No “interaction” between operator and computer after starting the run
  • Punch cards, tapes for input
  • Serial operations

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator vannevar bush
Innovator: Vannevar Bush
  • Faculty at MIT
  • Director of Office of Scientific Research & Development
    • Coordinate WWII effort with 6,000 scientists
  • “As We May Think” - 1945 Atlantic Monthly
  • Postulated Memex device
    • Stores all records/articles/communications
    • Items retrieved by indexing, keywords, cross

references (now called hyperlinks)

    • (Envisioned as microfilm, not computer)
  • http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/computer/bushf.htm

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

memex
Memex

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

Picture from http://www.dynamicdiagrams.com/design/memex/model.htm#download

as we may think
As We May Think
  • Futuristic inventions / trends
    • Wearable cameras for photographic records

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

as we may think14
As We May Think
  • Automatic transcripts of speech

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

as we may think15
As We May Think
  • Other visions
    • Encyclopedia Brittanica for 5 cents
    • Direct capture of nerve impulses
  • Some have come true
    • Increased specialization
    • Flood of information
    • Faster / Cheaper / Smaller / More reliable
  • Some he missed or we are still waiting
    • Microphotography?
    • Memex?

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

as we may think16
As We May Think
  • Not so much predicting future as "inventing it" by publishing article
    • hypertext
    • wearable memory aid
  • Use technology to augment human intellectual abilities
  • New kinds of technology lead to new kinds of human/machine & human/human interaction
  • Be aware that science/engineering can impact society

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

technological advance paradigm shift networks time sharing
Technological advance / paradigm shift: Networks & time-sharing
  • Batch processing  interactive computing
  • Computers still too expensive for individuals timesharing
    • increased accessibility
    • interactive systems, not jobs
    • text processing, editing
    • email, shared file system
  • There was need for HCI in the design of programming languages

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator j c r licklider
Innovator: J.C.R. Licklider
  • 1960 - Postulated “man-computer symbiosis”
  • Couple human brainsand computing machinestightly to revolutionizeinformation handling
  • 1968 – “The Computer as a Communication Device”

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

computing in 1960s
Computing in 1960s
  • Transistor (1948)
  • Timesharing (1950s)
  • Terminals and keyboards
  • ARPA: Advanced Research Projects Agency (1958)
  • Computers still primarily for scientists and engineers

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

Jason Hong / James Landay, UC Berkeley

innovator ivan sutherland
Innovator: Ivan Sutherland
  • SketchPad - 1963 PhD thesis at MIT
    • Hierarchy - pictures & subpictures
    • Master picture with instances (i.e., OOP)
    • Constraints
    • Icons
    • Copying
    • Light pen input device
    • Recursive operations
  • Technological advance: Video display units
  • Start of Direct Manipulation

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator douglas englebart
Innovator: Douglas Englebart
  • Landmark system/demo:
    • hierarchical hypertext, multimedia, mouse, high-res display, windows, shared files, electronic messaging,CSCW, teleconferencing, ...
    • Invented the mouse
  • All this took place before
    • Unix and C (1970s)
    • ARPAnet (1969) & later Internet

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

programming toolkits
Programming toolkits
  • How do humans attack complex problems?
  • Allowed for “bootstrapping”
  • People could build complex systems more quickly and easily
  • In later writings: Collective-IQ

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

the dawn of the desktop xerox parc
The dawn of the desktop – Xerox PARC
  • Established 1970
    • Bob Taylor heads CSL - Computer Systems Lab
  • 1971
    • Laser printer (Gary Starkweather)
  • 1973
    • Ethernet (Bob Metcalfe)
    • Alto personal computer (Chuck Thacker)

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

more from xerox parc
More from Xerox PARC
  • Real-time windowing operations
    • BitBlt
    • Daniel Bobrow

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator alan kay
Innovator: Alan Kay
  • Smalltalk
  • Dynabook - Notebook sized computer loaded with multimedia and can store everything
  • Technological advance: Personal computing
    • LOGO (Papert) – enabled children to program using a simple language
    • Computing more accessible to “regular people”

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm wimp gui
Paradigm: WIMP / GUI
  • Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers
  • Graphical User Interface
  • WIMP interface allows you to do several things simultaneously
  • Has become the familiar GUI interface
  • Xerox Alto, Star; early Apples
  • Computer as a “dialogue partner”

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

pcs with guis
PCs with GUIs
  • Xerox PARC - mid 1970’s
    • Alto
      • local processor, bitmap display, mouse
      • Precursor to modern GUI,windows, menus, scrollbars
      • LAN - Ethernet

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

xerox star 1981
Xerox Star - 1981
  • First commercial PC designed for “business professionals”
    • desktop metaphor, pointing, WYSIWYG, high degree of consistency and simplicity
  • First system based on usability engineering
    • Paper prototyping and analysis
    • Usability testing and iterative refinement

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

xerox star 198129
Xerox Star - 1981

(flop)

  • 1st commercial PC
    • $15k cost
    • closed architecture
    • lacking key functionality(spreadsheet)

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

apple lisa 1982
Apple Lisa - 1982
  • Based on ideas of Star
  • More personal rather than office tool
    • Still $$$ - $10K to $12K
  • Failure

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

apple macintosh 1984
Apple Macintosh - 1984
  • Aggressive pricing - $2500
  • Not trailblazer, smart copier
  • Good interface guidelines
  • 3rd party applications
  • High quality graphics and laser printer

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm metaphors
Paradigm: Metaphors
  • LOGO’s turtle
  • Office desktop
  • Mapping new interactions to existing, familiar concepts
  • Others?

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm direct manipulation
Paradigm: Direct Manipulation
  • ‘82 Shneiderman describes appeal of rapidly-developing graphically-based interaction
    • object visibility
    • incremental action and rapid feedback
    • reversibility encourages exploration
    • replace language with action
    • syntactic correctness of all actions
  • WYSIWYG, Apple Mac

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm language vs action agents
Paradigm: Language vs. action (agents)
  • User understands system or interface translates for user
  • Tradeoff between requiring the system to understand the user, and user to understand the system
  • Tradeoffs between language and direct manipulation

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm cscw
Paradigm: CSCW
  • Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
  • No longer single user/single system
  • Many users, shared system, but now the users are interacting with each other
  • Micro-social aspects are crucial
  • E-mail as prominent success but other groupware still not widely used

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator ted nelson
Innovator: Ted Nelson
  • Computers can help people, not just business
  • Coined and popularized term “hypertext”
  • Xanadu

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm hypertext
Paradigm: Hypertext
  • Think of information not as linear flow but as interconnected nodes
  • Bush’s MEMEX &

Nelson’s hypertext

  • Non-linear browsingstructure
  • Hypermedia
  • WWW in ’93 was thereal launch

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm www
Paradigm: WWW
  • Two Key Components
    • URL
    • Browser
  • Tim Brenners-Lee did both1991 first text-based browser
  • Marc Andreesen created Mosaic (first graphic browser, 1993)

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm multi modality
Paradigm: Multi-modality
  • Mode is a human communication channel
    • Not just the senses
      • e.g. speech and non-speech audio are two modes
  • Emphasis on simultaneous use of multiple channels for I/O

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

innovator mark weiser
Innovator: Mark Weiser
  • Introduced notion of Ubiquitous Computing and Calm Technology
    • It’s everywhere, but recedes quietly into background
  • Was CTO of Xerox PARC

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

paradigm ubiquitous computing
Paradigm: Ubiquitous Computing
  • Person is no longer user of single device but occupant of computationally-rich environment
  • Many computers to one person
  • Can no longer neglect macro-social aspects
  • Off the desktop to the laptop, PDAs, cell phones, …

CS 4750 - Fall 2004

sensor based context aware computing
Sensor-based & context-aware computing
  • Commanding a system  implicit interaction
  • Data used to make inferences about a situation
  • Controversial & still problematic

CS 4750 - Fall 2004