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SS6H1a.b. SS6H2a.

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  1. SS6H1a.b.SS6H2a. Latin America

  2. Standard: • SS6H1: b. Explain the impact of the Columbian Exchange on Latin America and Europe in terms of the decline of the indigenous population, agricultural change, and the introduction of the horse.

  3. Before 1492 Two very different ecosystems Two sets of culturally diverse peoples Two sets of flora and fauna Two different disease pools

  4. “...all the trees were as different from ours as day from night, and so the fruits, the herbage, the rocks, and all things.” -- Christopher Columbus

  5. Two biological ecosystems interchanged to create a new world ecology.

  6. According to historian Alfred Crosby, the exchange of plants, animals and pathogens between the two hemispheres was biologically “the most spectacular thing that has ever happened to humans," and he coined the phenomenon the Columbian Exchange.

  7. An Exchange of Pathogens The smallpox virus • In Mexico alone, the native population fell from roughly 30 million in 1519 to only 3 million in 1568.

  8. The greatest impact of the Columbian Exchange was the exchange of different food crops. Sweet Potatos Potatos Cassava Wheat

  9. Originally from the Western Hemisphere Potato Maize (corn) Manioc (cassava, tapioca) Sweet potato Tomato Cacao (chocolate) Squash Chili peppers Pumpkin Papaya Guava Tobacco Avocado Pineapple Beans (most varieties, including phaseolus vulgaris) Peanuts Certain cottons Rubber Turkeys Originally from the Eastern Hemisphere Sugar Olive oil Various grains (Wheat, rice, rye, barley, oats) Grapes Coffee Horses Cattle Pigs Goats Sheep Chickens Various fruit trees (pear, apple, peach, orange, lemon, pomegranate, fig, banana) Chick peas Melons Radishes A wide variety of weeds and grasses Cauliflower Cabbage The Exchange of Plants and Animals

  10. The Columbian Exchange

  11. Imagine Italian food without tomatoes, Mexican food with no rice and bean dish, the Irish without potatoes, chocolate without sugar.

  12. Standard: SS6H1: a. The student will describe the encounter (an unexpected or casual meeting with someone or something) and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas AND the roles of Cortez, Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.

  13. Introduction to the Aztecs •

  14. Hernan Cortes • Spanish conquistador- In 1519, the Governor of Spain hired Cortes to lead an expedition into Mexico. • He took 600 men, 16 horses, and 14 cannons with him into Mexico.

  15. Cortes was concerned that some of his men would be frightened by the Aztec. • To make sure that no one tried to escape back to home, Cortes had all the ships destroyed. • Success or Death were their only options

  16. Cortes Meets the Aztecs •

  17. Cortes in Mexico Cortes trained his men for several months • He made friends with nearby Indians who did not like the Aztec • He began to hear more rumors that there were Indians, the Aztecs, who lived further inland that had a lot of gold. • By the time he marched on the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan, he had over 1,500 fighters. Over 1,000 were native people who wanted to fight the Aztec.

  18. The ruler of the Aztec at this time was Montezuma II. • Under his rule, the Aztecs controlled the area around their capital city of Tenochtitlan, now Mexico City. • Their borders stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to thePacific Ocean. • They controlled lands as far south as present-day Guatemala.

  19. Cortes meets the Aztecs Cortez used an interpreter who had once been an Aztec slave and spoke their language.

  20. Cortes and the Aztecs • The Aztecs had also heard rumors – how these men were light skinned and had strange animals and weapons. • Montezuma II thought that Cortes was the god, Quetzalcoatl, who was fair skinned and had promised to return one day. So he gave him gold and allowed him to enter the great city of Tenochtitlan.

  21. Cortes seizes the Emperor • While they were there, the Spanish tried to convert the Aztecs to Christianity because they were so offended by their religion. • Even though they were greatly outnumbered, Cortes had horses and better weapons and armor. He captured Montezuma II and tried to rule through him. Cortes believed that he could control the Aztec by keeping their leader hostage. • They seized the Aztec gold and destroyed their temples.

  22. A fight had broken out between Cortes’ men and the Aztec while Cortes was away. • When Cortes returned, battles had to be fought to win back Tenochtitlan.

  23. In 1521, Cortes led a military victory over the Aztec • From this time forward, the Spanish sent more troops and settlers to Mexico.

  24. “Invisible Warrior” • Another reason the Spanish were so successful in defeating the Aztecs: the invisible warrior. The Spanish brought with them diseases that the Aztecs did not have immunity for: smallpox and influenza were two of the deadliest.

  25. End of the Aztec Empire • Montezuma was killed in 1520. Most believe he was killed by his own people when he tried to stop a rebellion. • In 1521, the Spanish blocked traffic to and from the city and then burned Tenochtitlan to the ground and later built a new city, MexicoCity, on the same site. • Cortes became very wealthy and famous. In 1540 he returned to Spain .

  26. Let’s Summarize

  27. Conflict # 1: Aztec Empire v. Spain 1519-1521 Southern Mexican Plateau (Near modern Mexico City) Montezuma II Hernan Cortes -The Spanish are victorious -They have superior weapons & use the neighbors of the Aztecs as allies -Montezuma II is Killed The Spanish claimed Mexico as a part of their Empire & used it’s resources to gain wealth The people of the region developed Spanish Culture traits (Language-Spanish & Religion- Catholic) Spain ruled the area for the next 300 years.

  28. Exit Ticket How did Hernan Cortes impact Latin America?

  29. Warm-Up Share your response from yesterday’s exit ticket. Watch video clip: (1:20)

  30. Standard: SS6H1: a. The student will describe the encounter (an unexpected or casual meeting with someone or something) and consequences of the conflict between the Spanish and the Aztecs and Incas AND the roles of Cortez, Montezuma, Pizarro and Atahualpa.

  31. Francisco Pizarro • Pizarro was born in Spain in 1475. • He was a pig farmer as a boy. • As a young man he joined a ship traveling for the New World.

  32. In 1502, at the age of 27, he landed on the island of Hispaniola. • He learned a lot about exploration and conquering the native people. • He traveled with Vasco Nunez de Balboa on his famous exploration of Central America in which Europeans first sighted the Pacific Ocean.

  33. In 1523, Pizarro led a voyage to explore the west coast of South America, south of Panama. • He came across some Indian traders who told of a rich country to the south. • He learned that these people were the Inca and that they lived in the area of what is now Peru. • Over the next few years, Pizarro went back to Spain to get permission to invade and conquer the Incas.

  34. The Spanish king gave Pizarro permission to take the Inca land and claim it as part of Spain. • He made Pizarro viceroy (governor) over the lands stretching six hundred miles south from Panama.

  35. The king also gave Pizarro three ships, about two hundred men, and three dozen horses to make his plan work. • Pizarro began his mission in 1531

  36. Introduction to the Incas

  37. Atahualpa was the last ruler of the Inca empire He had just gained control of the empire from his brotherwhen Pizarro showed up. • Inca land stretched 2,000 miles along the Pacific Coast of South America

  38. Atahulapa was considered to almost be a God. Each day, he was given new clothes to wear, never wearing the same clothes more than once. Even the walls of his palace were gold and silver. He wore gold jewelry and ate from gold plates and cups. He was carried by servants from place to place on a special chair.

  39. How did the Spanish win?

  40. Let’s watch and see… (4:39)

  41. Sneak Attack!! • Pizarro arranged a meeting between him and Atahualpa in 1531. • The two did not trust each other. • Pizarro had men hiding in buildings around the Incan town. He was up to no good.

  42. What do you think the Spaniards had hidden with them that helped them win?

  43. Remember the Colombian Exchange: Guns Cannons Horses The Spanish had four main advantages:

  44. But worst of all the invisible weapon: Diseases What do you think this did to the population ? How could this have been an advantage to the Spaniards?

  45. Sneak Attack Atahualpa arrived with thousands of men. But………

  46. Sneak Attack Atahualpa walked into a trap. When Atahualpa came out, the Spanish began shooting their cannons and guns, which were unknown to the Inca. The Inca were scared of them and terrified of the horses the Spanish rode . This gave the Spanish the advantage.

  47. Not Playing Fair Once the Spanish took Atahualpa captive the Incas had no leader and they could not fight well. They thought Atahualpa was a god and could not believe that he was defeated. Pizarro demanded gold for his return. The Inca brought 24 tons of gold and silver in exchange for the life of Atahualpa The gold and silver were melted into bars, and most were sent back to Spain for the king However, Atahualpa was not released

  48. Not Playing Fair • Atahualpa was executed on August 29, 1533 by Pizarro and his men. • Atahualpa’s death ended the empire of the Inca. • Even though some warriors still fought, the empire was gone because it had no recognizable leader