The Rise of Nation States: England and France. Ms. Carmelitano. The Rise of Nation States. By the 900’s the Carolingian Empire left small feudal states in Europe European monarchs consolidated their power and began creating nation states in the late medieval period
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The Rise of Nation States: England and France Ms. Carmelitano
The Rise of Nation States • By the 900’s the Carolingian Empire left small feudal states in Europe • European monarchs consolidated their power and began creating nation states in the late medieval period • A state whose citizens share a language or common descent.
England • Native people: Anglo-Saxons • Alfred the Great: King 871-899 AD • Protected Anglo-Saxons from the Vikings • United the kingdom, calling it England: “Land of the Angles” • Canute: King in 1016 • United Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people
Conquest • Alfred the Great died in 1042, leaving no heir • A struggle for the throne ensued • William the Conqueror • Duke of Normandy– North of France, conquered by Vikings • Viking descents, but French in culture and language • Claimed the English crown against Harold Godwinson • An Anglo-Saxon • October 14, 1066, Battle of Hastings • Harold was killed, William the Conqueror took the throne • Laid the foundations for a centralized government in England
Henry II • Goals of English kings • 1. Hold on to French lands • 2. Strengthen power over the church and nobles • Henry II: (1154-1189 AD) married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France to strengthen the alliance • Holding land in France made him a vassal to the French King • He was also a king in England
Henry’s Government • Royal Courts of Justice • Sent royal judges throughout England once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, punish crimes • Juries • Introduced juries to English courts • Group of 12 loyal neighbors of the accused who answered questions about facts of a case • Common law • Rulings made by England’s Royal Judges • (These became precedents for later laws)
Magna Carta • Henry’s son John took the throne from 1199-1216 • John Softsword • John lost all of the lands in Normandy to the French • Over-taxed his subjects • Alienated the church • June 15, 1215 – the subjects rebelled and forced John to sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter) • Written by English nobles • Guaranteed basic political rights and checked the power of the king • No taxation without representation, a jury trial, protection under the law
Parliament • Edward I • Needed money to fight the French ,Welsh, and Scots • 1295 AD summoned two wealthy citizens (burgesses) from every borough and two knights to serve as parliament • This will become the Legislative group in England • November 1295 AD – knights, burgesses, bishops, lords met at Westminster in London – the Middle Parliament • Parliament was called when taxes were needed • House of Commons: Lower house with officials voted in • House of Lords: Upper house with appointed officials
France • After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, counts and dukes ruled independently under the Feudal system • In 1000 AD: France was 47 different territories • The Capet family • A French noble family • Hugh Capet – a duke who ruled Paris • Capetian dynasty: French kings from 987 to 1328
The Kingdom of France • For 300 years Capetian Kings strengthened the kingdom • Philip II: Ruled from 1180 to 1223 AD • Seized Normandy from King John, and expanded the lands of France • Philip IV (1285-1314) created the Estates-General • Council of advisors (General Assembly) • First Estate: church leaders • Second Estate: lords • Third Estate: commoners