The Rise of Nation States: England and France - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rise of Nation States: England and France

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  1. The Rise of Nation States: England and France Ms. Carmelitano

  2. The Rise of Nation States • By the 900’s the Carolingian Empire left small feudal states in Europe • European monarchs consolidated their power and began creating nation states in the late medieval period • A state whose citizens share a language or common descent.

  3. England • Native people: Anglo-Saxons • Alfred the Great: King 871-899 AD • Protected Anglo-Saxons from the Vikings • United the kingdom, calling it England: “Land of the Angles” • Canute: King in 1016 • United Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people

  4. Conquest • Alfred the Great died in 1042, leaving no heir • A struggle for the throne ensued • William the Conqueror • Duke of Normandy– North of France, conquered by Vikings • Viking descents, but French in culture and language • Claimed the English crown against Harold Godwinson • An Anglo-Saxon • October 14, 1066, Battle of Hastings • Harold was killed, William the Conqueror took the throne • Laid the foundations for a centralized government in England

  5. Henry II • Goals of English kings • 1. Hold on to French lands • 2. Strengthen power over the church and nobles • Henry II: (1154-1189 AD) married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France to strengthen the alliance • Holding land in France made him a vassal to the French King • He was also a king in England

  6. Henry’s Government • Royal Courts of Justice • Sent royal judges throughout England once a year to collect taxes, settle lawsuits, punish crimes • Juries • Introduced juries to English courts • Group of 12 loyal neighbors of the accused who answered questions about facts of a case • Common law • Rulings made by England’s Royal Judges • (These became precedents for later laws)

  7. Magna Carta • Henry’s son John took the throne from 1199-1216 • John Softsword • John lost all of the lands in Normandy to the French • Over-taxed his subjects • Alienated the church • June 15, 1215 – the subjects rebelled and forced John to sign the Magna Carta (Great Charter) • Written by English nobles • Guaranteed basic political rights and checked the power of the king • No taxation without representation, a jury trial, protection under the law

  8. Parliament • Edward I • Needed money to fight the French ,Welsh, and Scots • 1295 AD summoned two wealthy citizens (burgesses) from every borough and two knights to serve as parliament • This will become the Legislative group in England • November 1295 AD – knights, burgesses, bishops, lords met at Westminster in London – the Middle Parliament • Parliament was called when taxes were needed • House of Commons: Lower house with officials voted in • House of Lords: Upper house with appointed officials

  9. France • After the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, counts and dukes ruled independently under the Feudal system • In 1000 AD: France was 47 different territories • The Capet family • A French noble family • Hugh Capet – a duke who ruled Paris • Capetian dynasty: French kings from 987 to 1328

  10. The Kingdom of France • For 300 years Capetian Kings strengthened the kingdom • Philip II: Ruled from 1180 to 1223 AD • Seized Normandy from King John, and expanded the lands of France • Philip IV (1285-1314) created the Estates-General • Council of advisors (General Assembly) • First Estate: church leaders • Second Estate: lords • Third Estate: commoners