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The End of Feudalism and Rise of Nation-States. The Decline of Feudalism. After the Hundred Years’ war, both the English and the French monarchies and their kings gained greater power and took complete control of their governments.
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The Decline of Feudalism • After the Hundred Years’ war, both the English and the French monarchies and their kings gained greater power and took complete control of their governments. • The Medieval Feudal system worked well for many hundreds of years but the decline of feudalism occurred and was due to a number of events which occurred. • Feudalism was based on the division of land by the king to nobles and vassals in return for their military service. • Land was the main source of the economy and was dependent on the peasants who worked on the land.
Reasons for the Decline of Feudalism: • Strong feelings of nationalism in both countries facilitated the break from the feudal system. • Allegiance shifted from local lords to the king. • This was the beginning of nations: People were bound together by a common government, language, culture and set of ideas.
Reasons for the Decline of Feudalism: • The Crusades and travel during the Middle Ages opened new trade options to England • England started to move from land based economy to a money based economy • The Black Death - reduced the population of England by one third. • The Peasants Revolt - Peasants realized their worth and demanded changes.
Reasons for the Decline of Feudalism: • Peasants moved away from the country into towns they were eventually allowed to buy their freedom • Land was rented and the rights of lords over labor decreased • A centralized government was established
The Standing Armies • The decline of feudalism came when rich nobles were allowed to pay for soldiers rather than to fight themselves. • Life changed and Mercenaries were hired from all over Europe. The Mercenaries had few allegiances, except to money, and these paid fighting men were feared throughout Europe. • The threat of the Mercenaries led on to the employment of professional, trained soldiers - the Standing Armies and ultimately the end of Middle Ages feudalism in England.
The End of Feudalism in England • Under feudalism the King was answerable to the Pope. • At the end of the Middle Ages King Henry VIII clashed with the Pope and England subsequently broke with the Catholic church of Rome and the power of the Pope. • This led to the establishment of the Church of England and the Dissolution of the Monasteries. • It was the final 'nail in the coffin' of the Medieval Feudal System, feudalism, in England.
Do in groups of three…. To be handed in: • Define the word monarchy. (check glossary) • England • Which family formed the first great monarchial dynasty in England? From whom were they descended? • Describe the function on the juries? • In 1086, what was recorded in the Doomsday Book? How was this information used? • Describe the changes and measures taken by Henry I to increase his power. • Describe the rebellion in 1215 against Prince John and explain the nature of the Magna Carta. • Parliament (in England) • Why did William the Conqueror start the Great Council? Who made up the council? How did the Magna Carta change that function? • Define the word Parliament in the 13th century? • What was the “Model Parliament”? • Define the House of Lords and the House of Commons. • France • Who founded a dynasty that would rule France for three hundred years despite powerful feudal lords? • How did the Capetians (Hugh Capet and his descendents) add to their rather small landholdings? • Describe Philip Augustus’s efficient royal bureaucracy (a group of individuals who governed departments) which strengthened royal power and weakened that of feudal lords. • The Estates General (in France) • What was the Estates General and who formed it? • What 3 social classes made up the Estates General? • Why was the Estates General not as powerful as the English Parliament? • The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) • Why was it difficult to unite the 5 great duchies of medieval Germany? • Which king succeeded in uniting the duchies in 936? • Why did power struggles result between the emperor and pope?