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The Rise of the Nation-State. 1850-1871. Objective. To understand the rise of the nation-state in Europe To understand the decline of the Ottoman Empire To understand the circumstances behind Italian and German unification and consequences

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  • To understand the rise of the nation-state in Europe
  • To understand the decline of the Ottoman Empire
  • To understand the circumstances behind Italian and German unification and consequences
  • To understand the developments in other European states
  • Nation
  • State
  • Nation-State
the decline of the ottoman empire
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
  • Evident after the Greek Revolution in 1821
  • Attempts at Reform
  • Eastern Question
the crimean war
The Crimean War
  • Causes
    • Russia vs. Ottoman Empire
    • The Dardanelles
the crimean war7
The Crimean War
  • Britain, France, and Sardinia declare war on Russia in 1854
  • Outcome
italian unification
Italian Unification
  • Unite Italy and throw out the Austrians
  • Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Was there another way?
italian unification12
Italian Unification
  • Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861)
    • Prime Minister of Sardinia (Northern Italy)
    • Believed in Italian unification, but not by forming a republic
italian unification14
Italian Unification
  • Cavour allies Sardinia with France
  • Cavour works with Garibaldi to take over southern Italy
italian unification16
Italian Unification
  • Cavour dies in 1861
  • Italy united under Sardinian monarchy by 1870
german unification
German Unification
  • Frankfurt Assembly fails to unite German states into a democratic state in 1849
  • German states already linked economically
german unification20
German Unification
  • Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
    • Junker (Prussian nobleman)
    • Chancellor of Prussia
    • Realpolitik
german unification21
German Unification
  • Bismarck uses unification issue to strengthen Prussia
    • Step One: take out Austria
    • Danish War
german unification22
German Unification
  • Bismarck picks a fight with Austria
    • Seven Weeks’ War ends with Austrian defeat
    • Prussia wins rivalry with Austria
german unification23
German Unification
  • Step Two: Unite Southern German States and take out France
    • Vacancy on Spanish throne
    • Provoke France into a war
    • Franco-Prussian War, 1870
german unification25
German Unification
  • German Empire declared
  • Balance of power in Europe altered
  • Napoleon III overthrown
  • The Third Republic
  • Dreyfus Affair
  • Crimean War exposes Russia’s weakness
  • Serfdom abolished in 1861
  • Decline in power and influence
  • Dual Monarchy declared in 1867
  • Britain becomes a parliamentary democracy in the 19th century
  • Second Reform Bill (1867)
  • Other Reforms
  • Ireland
    • Problems
    • Home Rule
  • Nationalism explodes throughout Europe in the mid 19th century
  • Italy and Germany unified not democratically but through diplomacy and conservative politics
  • Older European states forced to adapt to changes