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The Rise of the Nation-State

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  1. The Rise of the Nation-State 1850-1871

  2. Objective • To understand the rise of the nation-state in Europe • To understand the decline of the Ottoman Empire • To understand the circumstances behind Italian and German unification and consequences • To understand the developments in other European states

  3. Nationalism • Nation • State • Nation-State

  4. The Decline of the Ottoman Empire • Evident after the Greek Revolution in 1821 • Attempts at Reform • Eastern Question

  5. The Crimean War • Causes • Russia vs. Ottoman Empire • The Dardanelles

  6. Europe 1850

  7. The Crimean War • Britain, France, and Sardinia declare war on Russia in 1854 • Outcome

  8. Crimean War

  9. Crimean War

  10. Florence Nightingale

  11. Italian Unification • Unite Italy and throw out the Austrians • Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi • Was there another way?

  12. Italian Unification • Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861) • Prime Minister of Sardinia (Northern Italy) • Believed in Italian unification, but not by forming a republic

  13. Count Camillo Cavour1810-1861

  14. Italian Unification • Cavour allies Sardinia with France • Cavour works with Garibaldi to take over southern Italy

  15. Garibaldi and Red Shirts

  16. Italian Unification • Cavour dies in 1861 • Italy united under Sardinian monarchy by 1870

  17. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel

  18. Italian Unification

  19. German Unification • Frankfurt Assembly fails to unite German states into a democratic state in 1849 • German states already linked economically

  20. German Unification • Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) • Junker (Prussian nobleman) • Chancellor of Prussia • Realpolitik

  21. German Unification • Bismarck uses unification issue to strengthen Prussia • Step One: take out Austria • Danish War

  22. German Unification • Bismarck picks a fight with Austria • Seven Weeks’ War ends with Austrian defeat • Prussia wins rivalry with Austria

  23. German Unification • Step Two: Unite Southern German States and take out France • Vacancy on Spanish throne • Provoke France into a war • Franco-Prussian War, 1870

  24. Franco-Prussian War

  25. German Unification • German Empire declared • Balance of power in Europe altered

  26. Wilhelm I Declared Emperor

  27. German Unification1866-71

  28. France • Napoleon III overthrown • The Third Republic • Dreyfus Affair

  29. Russia • Crimean War exposes Russia’s weakness • Serfdom abolished in 1861

  30. Alexander II

  31. Austria • Decline in power and influence • Dual Monarchy declared in 1867

  32. Austria-Hungary

  33. Britain • Britain becomes a parliamentary democracy in the 19th century • Second Reform Bill (1867) • Other Reforms

  34. Britain • Ireland • Problems • Home Rule

  35. Ireland

  36. Europe 1900

  37. Conclusion • Nationalism explodes throughout Europe in the mid 19th century • Italy and Germany unified not democratically but through diplomacy and conservative politics • Older European states forced to adapt to changes